1.1 Background to the Study
This study investigates the relationship between teachers’ motivation and student’s academic performance using some selected junior secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. Studies have shown that teachers’ satisfaction with school leadership determines their involvement and commitment to duty (Silins & Mulford, 2002). Teachers’ job satisfaction, learning and development in Nigeria have called for school leadership that is transformational in adoption of different motivational techniques. Studies have revealed high level of teacher satisfaction and learning in school systems where transformational leadership is implemented (Silins & Mulford, 2002). Previous investigations on teachers’ job satisfaction revealed that lack of effective motivation on the part of the school principals’, the school facilities and the government negatively affects teachers’ job satisfaction and at the long run have a negative impact on the academic performance of the student. (Bogler, 2002).
Some junior secondary school teachers had expressed dissatisfaction with their work due to unconducive environment created by administrative flaws (Bolger, 2002). It also has been revealed that teachers feel dissatisfied in school environments that do not provide opportunities for teacher development (Conley, Bas-Isaac & Brandon, 1998). These problems, coupled with the challenges of global economy pose a major concern to the government and boards of education. Principals therefore are required to exhibit appropriate motivational techniques as well as leadership skills to motivate teachers to maximize input, which might be expressed in teacher commitment to duty and student achievement.
Student achievement is expected to be high to satisfy parents and stakeholders, and to match with the present world of technology. Teachers’ dissatisfaction at work place has been seen to be one of the problems drawing this dream away from reality (Zembylas & Papanastasiou, 2004). The quest for teachers’ motivation and job satisfaction for effective classroom instruction is a major issue facing Nigeria today.
Aghenta, (2000) asserts that some external factors, such as bad roads (leading to the schools), lack of funds, poor infrastructures and instructional materials deter the efforts of teachers. Aka (2001) blames it on dubious legacies of military rule and the neglect of education in the second republic. Olumfemi (1976) focuses attention on poor payment of teachers and lack of instructional materials as responsible for low job satisfaction of teachers and poor performance of students, while Fafunwa (1974) pointed accusing fingers at lack of financial assistance. Hence, how effective the principal is in motivating their teachers has been a matter of concern to many educationists (Ige, 2001).
It is therefore not surprising that there is pressure mounted on effective leadership among principals of secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. It seems how-ever that many principals have not considered their styles of leadership as determinants of teachers’ job satisfaction among teachers in their schools. Hence, some of them seem to find it difficult to effectively administer their schools (Adeyemi, 2004).
As such, leadership style occupies an important position in school management in Plateau State, Nigeria. The school principal is in a unique position as the manager or administrator who controls schools’ resources for the purpose of attaining organizational goals. Hence, the aspects of motivational techniques to be studied include: Shared decision-making, professional development of teachers, use of merit based rewards and recognition of teachers performance.
Teachers have both intrinsic and extrinsic needs. A teacher who is intrinsically motivated may be observed to undertake a task for its own sake, for the satisfaction it provides or for the feeling of accomplishment and self-actualization. On the other hand, an extrinsically motivated teacher may perform the activity/duty in order to obtain some reward such as salary. Extrinsic motivation plays an important part in people’s life. It is pre-eminent in influencing a person’s behaviour. Therefore, the aim of a school should be to build on and enhance the intrinsic motivation for teachers to teach effectively and at the same time, to supply some extrinsic motivation along the way for school improvement (O’neil, 1995).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Based on past literature, motivation has many separate ingredients. Maslow, Herzberg, Vroom, Lawler, McGregor, and Bandura, among others, described theories which help to explain a person’s motivation. Measuring motivation for teachers is complicated since there are many facets to motivation. Today’s businesses are encouraged to work in teams and produce high quality products at the lowest price possible. In the same vein, teachers should also be encouraged to work in teams and produce high quality students like their business counterparts.
Since studies are yet to be comprehensively carried out on the impact of principals’ motivation techniques on teachers’ job satisfaction which this study seeks to examine within the Nigerian context.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between principals’ motivation techniques and teacher’s job satisfaction. The specific objectives are to:
i) Find out the extent to which principals’ motivation techniques predict teachers’ job satisfaction.
ii) Analyze principals who award monetary incentives more likely to use motivational techniques in working with teachers than those which were not awarding monetary incentives
iii) Examine whether there is any significant difference in teachers’ job performance in schools having principals using positive motivational techniques and schools having principals’ using autocratic technique
iv) Discuss the various leadership style is most commonly used by school principals in senior secondary schools
1.4 Research Questions
i. To what extent do principals’ motivation techniques predict teachers’ job satisfaction?
ii. Do principals who award monetary incentives more likely to use motivational techniques in working with teachers than those which were not awarding monetary incentives?
iii. Is there any significant difference in teachers’ job performance in schools having principals using positive motivational techniques and schools having principals’ using autocratic technique?
iv. Which leadership style is most commonly used by school principals in junior secondary schools in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho1 There is no significant difference between principals’ motivation techniques and teachers’ job satisfaction
Ho2. There is no significant difference between principals who award monetary incentives more likely to use motivational techniques in working with teachers and those which were not awarding monetary incentives?
1.6 Significance of the Study
For the past three decades, leadership, teachers’ job satisfaction and academic standards in the Nigerian secondary schools have deteriorated (Bassey, 1999). There have been strong feelings about the types of leadership styles and motivation techniques and the need to review them. Investigating the relationship between principals’ motivation techniques in motivating their teachers towards job satisfaction might go a long way in helping researchers in their efforts to review some of the administrative problems besieging the Nigerian schools.
This study will be of help to the ministry of education in Nigeria by enabling them to examine the administrative governance of schools as it affects job satisfaction of secondary school teachers. It is also anticipated that this study will help educators see the need for adjustments and flexibility in school administration. It is intended that this study will provide some insights for researchers in the field of educational leadership in their search for solutions to some of the administrative problems besieging the Nigerian secondary schools.
Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In this regard, it will be useful for other researchers who might want to carry out research in related areas.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between principals’ motivation techniques and teachers’ job satisfaction using some selected secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Apart from time frame and shortage of finance, the major limitation to this research is the inability of the researcher to cover the whole public secondary sschools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State as the title suggest.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined as they apply to this study:
Job satisfaction is defined as how well a person likes his or her job
Principal motivational techniques – Methods which a principal may use to motivate teachers such as shared decision-making, goal-setting, professional development, and a belief in the teacher’s ability to perform the desired tasks.
School-based performance award – An award system for teachers, which encourages collaborative work of a school to r each specific performance goals.
Motivation: Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas.
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