1.1 Background to the Study
Job performance is among the most explored concepts in employee and organizational research (Bardett & McKinney, 2004). Researchers have taken special interest in job performance because of its humanitarian, hypothetical, and fiscal significance to an organization (Balzer et al., 1997). There is, however, a lack of job performance research focused on university non-academic staff employees, a group many universities rely upon for the management of their daily operations.
Age variables have received of attention of scholars over the past few years, and there has been a good deal of research that has demonstrated significant relationships between various personality facets including age and job performance. More recent studies have focused on which specific aspects of age are most predictive of job performance, with a particular focus on those nearing retirement (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). Age, in this sense refers to both young adults who are energetic as well as those nearing retirement age and how it affects their job performance.
In Nigeria, retirement has traditionally been associated with a permanent exit from the workforce around the age of 65. Most government and private pensions take effect at this age making retirement a viable option for older employees. However, as changes have occurred in society so has the nature of retirement. As a result, more and more people are choosing to retire before the age of 65 (Dada and Idowu, 2006). Explanations for the increase in early retirement have stemmed from a number of changes including shifts in workforce demographics, advances in technology, fluctuations in the economy, and progress in legislation. Some of these factors have reduced the demand for older workers, making early retirement an attractive option. For instance, increases in the number of youths and women, entering the labour force have resulted in the displacement of many older workers. Technological changes have also made some of their skills obsolete. For these individuals, taking early retirement might be a better option than competing with a younger, more diverse workforce for jobs or finding ways to update their skills. This, however, have direct effect on the performance of workers in the university setting.
Research on the relationship between gender and job performance indicates that organizational policies on women contribute to cultural biases and values which invariably affect their performance in the work place (Cascio & Aguinis, 2005). In most cases, these original rules, policies, and practices have been modified very little to account for the enormous influx of diversity into the workplace, resulting in reduced opportunities for the women in the organization. Gender could affect the job performance of administrators in the university (Kawakami, White, & Langer, 2000). A key premise of the current research is that job performance can be affected by the combined effects of gender-role stereotypes held by job raters thereby creating negative consequences for job performance among non-academic women in the university.
Research on years of experience of workers reveals that it is a good predictor of job performance among non-academic staff in universities (Culp, 2005). Higher education institutions of all types and sizes are being encouraged to be diverse and retain those with a vast years of experience in the administrative field. According to Culp (2005), this will make the institution to be more to be accessible and to offer quality programs in order to meet the needs and wants of their students. Although differences are evident between federal, state and privately owned private universities in Nigeria, institutions still must encourage all departments on campus to enhance their programs and improve effectiveness and help build awareness and pride among the staff and students. Having a thorough understanding of how higher education administrators function helps universities and colleges identify what departmental programs and services have the greatest amount of influence on the overall productivity of the college campus.
Studying job performance allows campus administrators to identify what long-established institutional behaviors and actions give them satisfaction in their work performance. Performance in the workplace should instill a positive work environment and continue to impede adaptability and positive change (Sopow, 2006). If campus administrators are to assume responsibility for managing their work environment, further research is needed to assess the relationship between age, gender, and years of experiences of campus administrator‘s and their job performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, higher education has experienced a major transformation in its overall complexity, diversity, and significance. Universities and colleges have had to adapt to a variety of issues and conditions that require higher education administrators to be innovative and resourceful when developing strategies that increase academic achievement and student learning. In order to balance internal and external pressures for student learning strategies it has become important that higher education administrators continue to explore what academic and administrative functions impact students on a university campus. Given these expectations for student learning, higher education administrators have developed, maintained, and enhanced institutional quality and effectiveness. Having administrators identify and evaluate what institutional programs and services create a social and intellectual environment for students helps to build a successful institutional climate and culture.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general aim of this research is to examine the age, gender, and years of experiences as predictors of job performance among non-academic staff administrators using Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun as case study. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were set:
- To Find out whether age predicts job performance among administrators
- Find out if gender of the administrator has any relationship with job performance in the workplace
- Find out if years of experience may affect the job performance of administrators at the workplace
- To find out if job performance may depend on such factors as age, gender and years of experience of administrators.
1.4 Research Question
The research will answer the question:
- Is there any significant difference between age of administrators and their job performance in the workplace?
- Is there any significant difference between gender of administrators and their job performance in the workplace?
- Is there any significant difference between years of experience and their job performance in the workplace?
- What impact does age, gender and years of experience of administrators have on their job performance
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho1 There is no statistically significant difference between the age of administrators and their job performance in the workplace
Ho2 There is no statistically significant difference gender of administrators and their job performance in the workplace
Ho3 There is no statistically significant difference between years of experience and their job performance in the workplace
Ho4 There is no statistically significant difference age, gender and years of experience of administrators and their job performance
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study centers on the correlation between age, gender, and years of experiences and job performance among non-academic staff administrators using Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun as case study. Forty non-academic members of staff of TASUED will be randomly selected as respondents. The study covers eight years (2005 to 2013) period.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
Apart from short of fund and timeframe to conduct the study, this study is further limited by the following factors:
- An attitudinal scale is going to be used by the researcher to measure job performance in the study. Opinions and perceptions of university administrators may change with time and may be affected by non-work variables. In addition, an employee‘s work environment, individual responsibilities, and positions may change. Therefore, levels of job performance may change.
- Findings are going to be based on self-reported responses to the job performance questionnaire and, therefore, rely on the accurate self-assessment, honesty, and motivation of responders.
- Testing job performance over an extended period of time among members of staff in the university will be limited to five years study, despite that most members of non-academic staff of the university were formerly members of staff in the then Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijagun.
1.8 Significance of the Study
This will aid our knowledge about job performance and how various factors affect the performance of non academic administrative staff in higher institution in Nigeria. It will also show why there is need for the government and the institutions to develop effective communication on organizing seminars and workshops for administrators to enable them perform better at their workplace.
This study will bring about understanding with regard to what problems administrators encounter in performing their duties at the workplace. This will then allow the development of improved strategies of help or intervention either by the government, corporate institutions, the universities societies, groups and individuals on solving those problems.
This study is deemed important given the scarcity of adequate literature or studies on the relationship between the age, gender and years of experience as predictors of job performance among non-academic staff in Nigerian universities.
Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In this regard, it will be useful for other researchers who might want to carry out research in related areas.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Examination: examination is a way to ascertain how much of a subject matter in a particular field of study the candidate has mastered. In other words, it is a process through which studies are evaluated or tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within a specific period.
Age: the chronological age of a person
Gender: the state of a being female or male
Job Performance: Job performance is a commonly used, yet poorly defined concept in industrial and organizational psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. It’s also part of Human Resources Management. It most commonly refers to whether a person performs their job well.
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