Chapter One: Introduction
The African Union (AU) together with the United Nations and the International Criminal Court (ICC) have pledged to create a continent of peace and solidarity. However, dozens of socio-ethnic conflicts occur across the continent despite the AU’s best efforts to prevent them. In this thesis, case study of Sudan is used to assess the efficacy of the AU in collaboration with the UN and ICC in the realm of peacemaking.
There are many reasons Sudan is a compelling country to study. Sudan, until recently, was Africa’s and the Arab world’s largest country. It is also the cradle of the worlds’ longest river, the Nile, and the Sudanese government exerts authority over the river’s tributaries, the Blue and White Niles. Additionally, the country is endowed with astonishing resources ranging from fertile land to minerals and oil. Sudan’s oil reserves were estimated to be among the richest in the continent and its potential agricultural products are considered enough to eradicate hunger in all of Africa.
However, wars and conflict faced Sudan on every front, not only internationally but also nationally. Internally, Sudan has been ravaged by two civil wars. The first is the North-South civil war, also known as Africa’s longest civil war, and the second is the conflict in Darfur. Khartoum’s involvement in the Darfur conflict resulted in an arrest warrant issued by the International Criminal Court (ICC)for the president of Sudan, Omar Al-Bashir, for crimes against humanity. Omar Al-Bashir’s authoritarian prolonged rule is said to eclipse the hopes for a democratic Sudan. Yet, the country underwent four democratic governments in the past five decades and therefore the spirit of revival persists. Sudan also experienced a few federal arrangements that are worth examining. Additionally, Sudan is one of the first few states to experience secession by a referendum in the world. In January 2010, South Sudan exercised its right to self-determination and in June 2011, declared itself as Africa’s youngest nation.
At present, the efforts of the African Union, United Nations and the International Criminal Court in peacekeeping in Sudan, are yet to receive the attention of scholars. Meanwhile, the case study illuminate the financial, political, and socio-cultural trials the AU, UN and ICC faces when engaging in peacemaking.
Chapter Two: Civil Wars in Sudan
This chapter examines the major civil wars in Sudan and the involvement of third party peacekeeping missions in the country.
Chapter Three: Relations between AU, UN and ICC in Peacekeeping in Sudan
A number of parameter need to be established for the study. First, the period covered is from 2002 to 2010. Second, the African Union (AU) and founding of the ICC for resolutions in Sudan is critically examined based on their peace and solidarity efforts. Third, the civil wars are to be examined primarily from the perspective of African Union’s peacekeeping initiatives despite the involvement of other international organisations such as the United Nations as well as regional third party interventions.
Chapter Four: Content Analysis
The Sudan conflicts were chosen for analysis due to their high level of AU involvement and therefore offer sufficient evidence of AU peacemaking and peacekeeping capabilities. Hence, the study will offer sufficient data for greater understanding of the relationship between AU and ICC in peacekeeping due to the AU’s deep involvement in each of these conflicts. Moreover, the comparison of the two cases will offer a more balanced understanding of the AU’s capacity for peacemaking and peacekeeping efforts in Africa.
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and content analysis.
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