NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY UNDER PRESIDENT GOODLUCK JONATHAN, 2011-2015

Chapter One: Introduction

The recent outbreaks of civil wars and conflicts in Niger (2007), Guinea Bissau (2008-2009), Côte d’Ivoire (2011), Sudan (2009-2014), etc., have received little or no pro-active peace support operations from Nigeria. This is in sharp contrast to the past active engagement of Nigeria in the sub-region. The aggressive articulation of African-centeredness in Nigeria’s foreign policy under General Murtala  Mohammed  (1975-1976) made the colonial and apartheid regimes in South Africa to reduce or stop their activities. At a point, Murtala challenged the United States of America and South Africa when they planned  to  install  a  puppet  regime  in  Angola.[1] General  Obasanjo equally employed cultural diplomacy to assert the supremacy of Nigeria in the region by hosting  high  level international conferences like  the  World  Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC 77’), the  World Conference for Action  against  Apartheid  and ECOWAS Heads of State  Summit, etc. The government also applied militancy in its foreign policy by ‘nationalizing’ British assets in Nigeria such as the British Petroleum in retaliation to Britain’s decision to sell crude oil to South Africa. This action, coupled with leading other African countries to boycott the 1978 Montreal Olympics forced the British government under  Thatcher to reverse its proposed  recognition  of  and  support for  the minority  racist  government in  Zimbabwe.[2]

            The country’s foreign policy has taken a new turn, leaning more toward the citizens. President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua’s administration (2007-2010) who took over from President Olusegun Obasanjo (1999-2007) concentrated more on the internal restructuring of Nigeria than on external relations. He worked on fighting corruption and literally settled the problem of the Niger Delta by offering Amnesty to the militants. However, critics have labeled his foreign policy posture as ‘inactive, dormant and unfocused’.[3]  It was typified by last minute cancellations of international appointments and a lull in filling ambassadorial positions, including that of Washington.

In 2009, the late President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua apologetically lamented the non-representation of Nigeria at the G-20 Pittsburgh Summit of heads of states. According to him, it is a sad thing “when 20 leaders in the leading countries in the world are meeting and Nigeria is not there. This is something we need to reflect upon. We have the population, we have the potentials, we have the ability and the capacity and we have the will. What do we lack?”[4] By implication, the foreign policy stance of Yar’Adua rested on population, resources and other traditional elements of power. However, the administration did not claim a regional power status based on these power indices.[5] Rather, he advocated citizen diplomacy where the implementation of the 7-Point Agenda took the centre-stage instead of the historical African centered foreign policy. he “Transformation Agenda” of the President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan is anchored on the promotion  and  protection  of  the  welfare  of  Nigerians citizens at home and abroad. However,  the dilemma of modern day diplomacy has been one of the challenges of the present administration: either to continue with the traditional African-centeredness policy or evolve a 21st century policy that will make Nigeria survive in a competitive global world.

            International and domestic factors have definitely influenced the foreign policies of President Goodluck Jonathan.But these influences are yet to be studied by scholars most of who regard contemporary and ongoing issues as full of uncertainties.

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on Nigeria’s foreign policy under President Goodluck Jonathan. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of experts in the field of international relations. Questionnaire will be used to collect data. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.


[1] Nigerian Army. Geo-Politics: Lecture Notes For Senior Staff On ‘Nigeria In International Affairs’. Abuja, 2011, p.6

[2] Obioma  P.  O. “The Foreign  Policy  Process of  Nigeria”. (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis), University  of Edinburgh., 1986, p.6

[3] Niyi A.,  The Domestication of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy. The Punch Newspaper, Tuesday, October 4, 2011.

[4] ThisDay Newspaper, April 6, 2009, p.80

[5] Reuben, A.  “A Sad Yar’adua and the G-20 Summit”.  April 5, 2009. Accessed from http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/columnists/a-sad-yaradua-and-the-g-20-summit.html  30/12/2013.

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CHALLENGES FACED BY ADULT STUDENTS IN A SANDWICH PROGRAMME: CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA



RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Adult involvement in continuing education or their  interest in pursuing further education is not without its challenges. In spite of the fact that there has been a remarkable increase in the participation of young girls and married women in educational pursuit and had continued to exhibit their desire or yearning for higher education, their efforts have continued to be limited by social norms  and dictates (Marim and Greenberger cited in Kazeem 2018; Osunde and Omoruyi 2019). Studies according to the authors have also shown that the poor socio-economic status of these adult has a relatively greater effect on the educational aspiration or desire to seek further education. Therefore, adult students who enlist in educational programme, are daily confronted with challenges that tend to undermine their efforts.

This study sought to determine the major challenges which confront adult students in continuing higher education with particular reference to University of Nigeria Sandwich Programme. It also seeks to tease out the implications it has for evolving an adequate counselling programme for women that would assist them deal with the challenges and for ensuring proper education of the women.

This study is considered significant for a number of reasons. In the first instance, it will help unravel the major  challenges confronting women in continuing education programme.  The data  generated will therefore, assist in evolving appropriate measures and alternative policy option that will enable the programme providers combat these problems and make learning and teaching more effective  and fruitful.

In addition, the data generated will also help to expand the frontiers of knowledge or add to existing literature in the area. It is also hoped that the findings will serve as feedback to managers in higher education on the challenges their women participants face and help them develop appropriate strategies and possibilities for improved performance and enhanced participation of more women in the programme.

Finally, it is hoped that the outcome of the study will aid in the formulation of appropriate counselling strategy or programme that would help women cope with challenges confronting them so as to successfully complete their education

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on challenges faced by adult students in a sandwich programme in Nigeria. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of adult students running part time programme at the University of Nigeria.  Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.


Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF NEPAD TO AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT

Chapter One: Introduction

The critical challenge of development for Africa in the 21st century is an issue around which there is considerable consensus. There is, however, little consensus on the nature of the crisis, the required development framework and trajectory or the ‘desired state’. In the context of the debate, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) has been promoted by its authors and sponsors as Africa’s development blueprint for meeting its development challenges. However, much of the criticism of NEPAD has focused, procedurally, on the lack of consultation in its drafting, and, paradigmatically, on its neoliberal content. Many scholars are of the opinion that adoption of NEPAD’s policy has not translated into development of Africa. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on the framework to measure the contributions of NEPAD to African development. Hence, this study seeks to analyse relevant areas of NEPAD  such as poverty reduction, trade promotion, good governance and institutional reforms that have shaped development in Africa.

The general aim of this study is to critically analyse the contributions of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to the development of Africa. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Measure the impact of implementation of NEPAD on poverty reduction in Africa;
  2. Examine the influence of the adoption and implementation of NEPAD on trade promotion in Africa;
  3. Analyse the impact of implementation of NEPAD’s framework on good governance in Africa;
  4. Examine the influence of implementation of NEPAD on institutional reforms in Africa

Both scholars and civil society thought of NEPAD in the light of past socioeconomic development plans, such as the Lagos Plan of Action. Their opinions did not give a concrete analysis of the concept of NEPAD, and they mainly believed that African leaders were beating the same drums of the development plans that their predecessors, such as Kwame Nkrumah, had played in the 1960s. This study moved away from that perspective as it identified the challenges faced by NEPAD and also examined some stakeholders’ perceptions of NEPAD since its inception. It was on this basis that the researcher evaluated the perceptions and challenges of NEPAD.

Many scholars and writers had viewed NEPAD using different ideological perspectives. Two groups were identified: those who thought NEPAD was doomed to fail because it tied Africa to the apron strings of the West and those who thought that NEPAD was the right step forward and held the key to Africa’s economic development. This research had no preconceptions of whether NEPAD would fail or succeed. The researcher set out to understand the indigenous African perceptions of NEPAD since its adoption and to study the challenges faced by NEPAD in achieving its set goals and objectives.

Although individual stakeholders had their various perceptions about Africa’s socio-economic development plans, they needed to be aware of the processes of NEPAD and its challenges before making a well-informed judgment whether it would succeed or fail. The final analysis of this study provides an evaluation of whether NEPAD was on course to achieving its set goals and objectives. So, this research is important for future studies in that it demonstrates the importance of publicizing economic plans and policies for development and of examining past economic plans, their successes, and their failures before developing new economic plans.

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the contributions of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to the development of Africa. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of two major groups of respondents. The first group comprised of 180 staff of NEPAD while the second group consist of beneficiaries of NEPAD programme. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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THE EFFECTS OF STUDY HABIT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGUN STATE



Chapter One: Introduction

Research on the correlation between study habit and students academic achievement has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the national Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the students. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2019) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and study habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

               However, studies of school achievement indicate that most students are under achievers (Okegbile, 2017). A major reason for students’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2018) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that students, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing study materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

               Study habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work privately. Azikiwe (2017) describes the study habit as “the adopted way and manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain mastery of the subject”. According to her, “good study habits are good assets to learners because they (habits) assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization and consequent excellent performance, while opposite constitute constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure”.

               Good (2018) define the term study habits as: The student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc”. Going by this definition it literally means that good study habit produces positive academic performance while inefficient study habit leads to academic failure.

               In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

               According to Hussain (2016) secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor has caused serious damage to the achievement status to secondary school students.

               Achievement is generally a pedagogical terminology used while determining learners’ success in formal education and which is measured through reports examinations, researches, and ratings with numerous factors of variables exerting influence. Essentially, the National Policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) has identified school achievement contents according to school subjects which are classified as core or elective subjects.

               Although studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on students academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the effect of study habit on students’ academic performance. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of some selected secondary schools in Ijebu Ode Local Government area of Ogun State as case study. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.3 Empirical Review
2.4 Appraisal of Literature

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Answers to Research Hypotheses
4.2 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation


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