IMPACT OF SCHOOL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT ON LEARNING OUTCOME OF STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE

Related image

Chapter One: Introduction

The sustainability of schools relies in part on the availability and utilization of funds available to support recurrent costs for systems upkeep at the school level. Studies (Bada and Oguguo, 2011) shows that heads of schools report shortages of funds which impact on the daily running of school programmes. Almost all institutions and organizations in Nigeria have been affected by recessions (Bada and Oguguo, 2011). During economic downturns, the world seems to focus on managing budgets. Since 2008 the federal government has taken dramatic measures to help the financial state of many institutions struggling with the current recession. Of those measures, massive bailout packages worth billions of dollars have been proposed and passed to help institutions across the nation.

Educational leaders have long sought to understand how to allocate finance to improve school and students’ learning outcome. Schools receive funding for the sole purpose of improving educational opportunities and achievement for students. Yet the benefits of increasing that finance are widely disputed. Research conducted outside Nigeria indicates that the level of finance in a school does make a difference in student achievement (Odden, Goertz, & Goertz, 2008).  However, limited research exists in Nigeria on whether increases in funding, utilized effectively and efficiently, does increase student achievement. Financing is often challenging to study because of the lack of disaggregation of district and school level expenditures. Educational boards have not historically kept track of categories of expenditures and are unable to aide researchers in their quest for financial data separated by theme.

Many issues amplify the importance of effective financing and management because of the implications on school funding for primary schools. Funding  for  basic  education  has  come  primarily  from  federal  and  local governments finance over the years; state governments have tended to prioritize tertiary education relying on local governments’ finance for primary education. A general lack of accountability inherent in current  practices  leads  to  inefficiency  in  use  of  finance.  Officials  estimate  that  these  challenges account  for  40%  –  45  %  of  allocated  funds.  Recurrent  capital  expenditure  imbalances  in  budgetary allocations  aggravate  the  challenges  and  stifle  the  provision  of  education  infrastructure. The  non-inclusion of performance conditions in the criteria for federal matching grants to state governments on basic education may lead to lack of incentives for performance and inefficiency. 

Schools are under even greater pressure to do more with less and maintain a clear process to decide how to allocate finance in areas that are needed the most and are the most effective. An important concern then, is understanding the connection between resource utilization, data-directed decision-making, and monitoring the use of resource utilization in schools to improve student learning outcome.

The prime purpose of this study was to investigate how financing and school management impacts on learning outcome in primary public schools in Benue State. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following research objectives:

  1. Conceptualize the three-model variables of resource allocation, government funding, and school financial management as they impact on students learning outcome;
  2. Determine the extent to which resource allocation produce effects, feelings, thoughts, and motivations for learners in relation to their learning outcome;
  3. Establish the link between government funding and level of learning outcome among students
  4. Find out if school financial management, with special focus on budgeting have direct consequences on learning outcome of students

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on impact of school financial management on learning outcome of students in Lagos State. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of some selected secondary schools in Lagos East Senatorial District covering Ikorodu, Somolu, Kosofe, Epe and Ibeju-Lekki. The total population of this study is 2,728. The table below further describes the population. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

4myresearch
Advertisements

INTERGROUP RELATIONS IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF YORUBA-HAUSA IN SAGAMU UP TO 2005

Image result for sagamu festival

Research Proposal

RNigeria is a large multi-ethnic country where intra-ethnic cleavages remain a critical problem and ethnic violence has erupted periodically. Among the prominent conflicts in Nigeria are: Ife-Modakeke Crisis in Osun State; Yoruba-Hausa Clashes in Sagamu, Ogun State; Eleme-Okrika Conflict in Rivers State; Zango-Kataf in Kaduna State; Tiv-Jukun in  Wukari, Taraba State; Ogoni-Adoni in Rivers State; Chamba-Kuteb in Taraba State;  Itsekiri-Ijaw/Urhobo in Delta State; Aguleri-Umuleri in Anambra State; Ijaw-Ilaje  conflict in Ondo State; Basa-Egbura in Nassarawa State; Hausa/Fulani-Sawaya in Bauchi, among others. These conflicts have provided a pattern that makes scholars to attribute their causes to greed, power and wealth distribution.

The impacts of these conflicts have led to loss of lives, displacement of people, destruction of properties, etc. Thus, the greatest challenge facing the process of conflict resolution in Nigeria is the issue of maintaining balance among the conflicting parties by the third party (i.e the Nigerian Government). This balance, however, can only be met if the roots of the conflict(s) are traced and treated fairly. Going by this analysis, the lessons from the key conflicts in Southwest Nigeria makes a good study because of its strategic importance in Nigerian history; and again, its prospect for conflict resolution in Nigeria.

The people of Sagamu were said to have migrated from Iremo quarters in Ile-Ife to a place called Yemule, a location between Ijebu-Ode and Agoro on Ijebu-Ode Sagamu road. After a brief spell they moved again to Okun-Owa from where they later settled at Orile-Offin which is about 5 kilometres from Sagamu and it is no encircled by the rubber plantation which extends from Sagamu to Ikenne.

The impact of the Hausa community in Sagamu town had not been well documented especially in contemporary periods, rather than pre-colonial periods. The Hausa had settled in Sagamu before Nigeria gained independence in 1960 and had developed great trade partners, especially in kolanut trade.

However, the Hausa community had grown rapidly in the area of textiles, cattle and recently in petroleum Distribution to the extent that they had develop their community and the town at large. This is the reason why the researcher, needs to examine Hausa impact in the area of social and economy Development to the  year 2005 and look on migration and settlement of the Hausa from 1960-2005.

The objectives of this study are to:

  1. Examine the geographical environment and peopling of Sagamu town;
  2. Discuss the formation of Hausa community in Sabo area of Sagamu
  3. Analyse the socio-economic relationship and competitions between the Yoruba and Hausa groups in Sagamu
  4. Discuss the outbreak of conflicts and means of resolutions between Yoruba and Hausa groups in Sagamu

This study will equip our knowledge of origin of Sagamu as well as how the Hausa came to settle in Sagamu. It will also enhance our understanding of causes and consequences of conflict between the traditional inhabitants of Sagamu and the Hausa community of the town. In addition it will be a source of reference to other researchers.

This study adopts the historical research methodology. In regard to this method, the research depends largely on primary sources especially oral tradition, letters, archival documents. Over ten people have been contacted in the various communities under study for oral interview. Different modes of collecting data (mostly oral interview) were adopted. Tape recorder was employed to collect data. The language used in collecting data was Yoruba and Hausa and later transcribed to English language and then cross-examined to check their level of objectivity and relevance.       Secondary sources were also sourced to enrich the research work. Published works on the history of the Sagamu people and also the history of Hausa community in Sagamu were consulted to provide a scholarly guideline for the work.

4myresearch

NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY UNDER PRESIDENT GOODLUCK JONATHAN, 2011-2015

Chapter One: Introduction

The recent outbreaks of civil wars and conflicts in Niger (2007), Guinea Bissau (2008-2009), Côte d’Ivoire (2011), Sudan (2009-2014), etc., have received little or no pro-active peace support operations from Nigeria. This is in sharp contrast to the past active engagement of Nigeria in the sub-region. The aggressive articulation of African-centeredness in Nigeria’s foreign policy under General Murtala  Mohammed  (1975-1976) made the colonial and apartheid regimes in South Africa to reduce or stop their activities. At a point, Murtala challenged the United States of America and South Africa when they planned  to  install  a  puppet  regime  in  Angola.[1] General  Obasanjo equally employed cultural diplomacy to assert the supremacy of Nigeria in the region by hosting  high  level international conferences like  the  World  Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC 77’), the  World Conference for Action  against  Apartheid  and ECOWAS Heads of State  Summit, etc. The government also applied militancy in its foreign policy by ‘nationalizing’ British assets in Nigeria such as the British Petroleum in retaliation to Britain’s decision to sell crude oil to South Africa. This action, coupled with leading other African countries to boycott the 1978 Montreal Olympics forced the British government under  Thatcher to reverse its proposed  recognition  of  and  support for  the minority  racist  government in  Zimbabwe.[2]

            The country’s foreign policy has taken a new turn, leaning more toward the citizens. President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua’s administration (2007-2010) who took over from President Olusegun Obasanjo (1999-2007) concentrated more on the internal restructuring of Nigeria than on external relations. He worked on fighting corruption and literally settled the problem of the Niger Delta by offering Amnesty to the militants. However, critics have labeled his foreign policy posture as ‘inactive, dormant and unfocused’.[3]  It was typified by last minute cancellations of international appointments and a lull in filling ambassadorial positions, including that of Washington.

In 2009, the late President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua apologetically lamented the non-representation of Nigeria at the G-20 Pittsburgh Summit of heads of states. According to him, it is a sad thing “when 20 leaders in the leading countries in the world are meeting and Nigeria is not there. This is something we need to reflect upon. We have the population, we have the potentials, we have the ability and the capacity and we have the will. What do we lack?”[4] By implication, the foreign policy stance of Yar’Adua rested on population, resources and other traditional elements of power. However, the administration did not claim a regional power status based on these power indices.[5] Rather, he advocated citizen diplomacy where the implementation of the 7-Point Agenda took the centre-stage instead of the historical African centered foreign policy. he “Transformation Agenda” of the President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan is anchored on the promotion  and  protection  of  the  welfare  of  Nigerians citizens at home and abroad. However,  the dilemma of modern day diplomacy has been one of the challenges of the present administration: either to continue with the traditional African-centeredness policy or evolve a 21st century policy that will make Nigeria survive in a competitive global world.

            International and domestic factors have definitely influenced the foreign policies of President Goodluck Jonathan.But these influences are yet to be studied by scholars most of who regard contemporary and ongoing issues as full of uncertainties.

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on Nigeria’s foreign policy under President Goodluck Jonathan. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of experts in the field of international relations. Questionnaire will be used to collect data. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.


[1] Nigerian Army. Geo-Politics: Lecture Notes For Senior Staff On ‘Nigeria In International Affairs’. Abuja, 2011, p.6

[2] Obioma  P.  O. “The Foreign  Policy  Process of  Nigeria”. (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis), University  of Edinburgh., 1986, p.6

[3] Niyi A.,  The Domestication of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy. The Punch Newspaper, Tuesday, October 4, 2011.

[4] ThisDay Newspaper, April 6, 2009, p.80

[5] Reuben, A.  “A Sad Yar’adua and the G-20 Summit”.  April 5, 2009. Accessed from http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/columnists/a-sad-yaradua-and-the-g-20-summit.html  30/12/2013.

4myresearch

CHALLENGES FACED BY ADULT STUDENTS IN A SANDWICH PROGRAMME: CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA



RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Adult involvement in continuing education or their  interest in pursuing further education is not without its challenges. In spite of the fact that there has been a remarkable increase in the participation of young girls and married women in educational pursuit and had continued to exhibit their desire or yearning for higher education, their efforts have continued to be limited by social norms  and dictates (Marim and Greenberger cited in Kazeem 2018; Osunde and Omoruyi 2019). Studies according to the authors have also shown that the poor socio-economic status of these adult has a relatively greater effect on the educational aspiration or desire to seek further education. Therefore, adult students who enlist in educational programme, are daily confronted with challenges that tend to undermine their efforts.

This study sought to determine the major challenges which confront adult students in continuing higher education with particular reference to University of Nigeria Sandwich Programme. It also seeks to tease out the implications it has for evolving an adequate counselling programme for women that would assist them deal with the challenges and for ensuring proper education of the women.

This study is considered significant for a number of reasons. In the first instance, it will help unravel the major  challenges confronting women in continuing education programme.  The data  generated will therefore, assist in evolving appropriate measures and alternative policy option that will enable the programme providers combat these problems and make learning and teaching more effective  and fruitful.

In addition, the data generated will also help to expand the frontiers of knowledge or add to existing literature in the area. It is also hoped that the findings will serve as feedback to managers in higher education on the challenges their women participants face and help them develop appropriate strategies and possibilities for improved performance and enhanced participation of more women in the programme.

Finally, it is hoped that the outcome of the study will aid in the formulation of appropriate counselling strategy or programme that would help women cope with challenges confronting them so as to successfully complete their education

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on challenges faced by adult students in a sandwich programme in Nigeria. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of adult students running part time programme at the University of Nigeria.  Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.


Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

4myresearch