MICRO-CREDIT AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF MARKET WOMEN IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Micro-credit schemes give poor people access to small amounts of financial credit to assist them in economic activities. As Naila Kabeer (1998) has noted, micro-credit programmes have become an increasingly important intervention for addressing poverty, through a strategy of direct lending or of financial intermediation. Further, in the 1990s the World Bank outlined a bilateral approach towards enhancing development growth for the poor: policies that supported the use of labour (by harnessing market incentives and other means) and the provision of basic services to the poor. In view of this, the bank and many other agencies have strongly maintained and advocated the implementation of micro-credit programmes as a positive means of enhancing women’s economic empowerment, especially in Third World countries (World Bank Report, 2000).

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The micro-credit scheme is the latest in a line of historical and conceptual frameworks for approaching interrelated development programmes or policies, designed and promoted as instruments of change. Concerns for women’s economic empowerment, voice and gender equality, especially within the household and community have informed the proliferation and implementation of these development schemes by many NGOs and governmental organisations.

Thus, the overall framework of this chapter will constitute two different parts: first it will examine various definitions of ‘development’ and its relevance to gender and development, and secondly, it will evaluate various development approaches and examine their significance to women’s economic empowerment and well-being in a broad spectrum.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The population for this study consists of all market women in Ita-Osun (popularly called New Market). The sample for this study constitutes one hundred (100) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis will be adopted.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE TEACHING OF BIOLOGY IN RURAL AREAS

 

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Inclusive education suggests and implies that every child, youth and adult irrespective of sex, race and any other distinguishing factor is entitled to education (Okeke, 2008). Inclusion is a new way of thinking about specialised education. The shift from special education to inclusive education signals a dramatic philosophical change. Inclusion is a belief in the inherent right of all persons to participate meaningfully in society. Inclusive education implies acceptance of differences and making room for persons who would otherwise be excluded. This practice of educating children who have disabilities together with their non-disabled peers means creating learning communities that appreciate and respond to the diverse need of its members (Eskay, 2009).

Since the launching of the first National Policy on Education (1977), there has been a plethora of activities aimed at improving special education services for children, including: the establishment of additional residential primary schools for children with disabilities in most states of the federation, the increased attendance of students with disabilities in secondary and higher institutions, and the preparation of special education teachers in select tertiary institutions in the country. There has also been a rise in the number of advocacy organizations of and for people with disabilities. These initiatives have however been met with mixed outcomes, with dually-trained special educators (i.e. those holding certification in an area of special education and a subject-matter discipline such as Biology) not properly deployed to work with students with disabilities. Other persistent problems over the years include: lack of up-to-date teaching devices, and organizational and leadership crises that have militated against reform of the special education sector.

Interestingly enough, Section 7 of the revised National Policy on Education (2008) explicitly recognizes that children and youth with special needs shall be provided with inclusive education services. The commitment is made to equalize educational opportunities for all children, irrespective of their physical, sensory, mental, psychological or emotional disabilities. Undoubtedly, these are lofty goals intended to improve the quality of inclusion education services, but much more is needed to translate the goals into concrete action especially in the rural areas.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and examines if Biology teachers’ biographical factors (gender, teaching experience and phase of the school) have any influence on their knowledge about inclusive education and a student with special educational needs.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were also made in chapter five

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2. Concept of Inclusive education
2.3 Development of Inclusive Education in Nigeria
2.4 Biology Teachers’ Attitude towards Inclusive Education
2.5 Inclusive Education for Teaching Biology in Rural Areas
2.6 Challenges to Inclusive Education in Nigeria

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

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EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON WOMEN IN NIGERIA

Introduction

Divorce is a phenomenon that affects the emotional, physical and social well being of the divorcees and those close to them. Most people do not enter into marriage with the intention of getting divorced. But divorce in a rapidly changing, industrialising Nigeria is fast becoming a common event, something that many will experience, or have already experienced.  In Nigeria, the divorce rate according to Alice (2012 citing the Almanac Book of Facts), was over 12,000 every year since 1975. Although, statistical records of marital instability are not compiled in Nigeria as yet. But Newspaper often reports cases of marital disruption on a weekly basis in Lagos and its environs. In Kwara State, the Ministry of Information and Culture recorded that 1,697 Marriages were registered for both the Churches and Marriage Registry from 1984-1988. During the same period (1984-88) there were 12,104 divorces (Court Case File, Child Welfare Centre and Oja-oba Area Courts, Ilorin). According to these records, the rate of divorces over marriages is at 71% approximately 7 divorces to every marriage (7:1). This shows that in Nigeria, a lot of couples did not go through the court, church or mosque to conduct their wedding but approach the court for dissolution of marriages.

Women experiencing divorce often find themselves in a situation that is not shared by friends and family.  The problems they experience are different to those experienced by other members of their community, and consequently, they may feel isolated from the community. Demographers predict that more than 45% of first-time marriages in the 21st  century will eventually end in divorce (Amato, 2010; Cherlin, 2010; Clarke-Stewart & Brentano, 2006). Research is plentiful on the topic of divorce, particularly as they affect children of the divorcees. However, there are limited data and scholarly works on the impact of divorce on women in Nigeria. It is on this basis that this study addresses the impact of divorce on women with specific reference to financial status, emotional well-being, and self-esteem.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.2.1 Conceptualizing of Divorce
2.2.2 Causes of Divorce
2.3 Divorce and women financial status
2.4 Divorce and women emotional well being
2.5 Divorce and women self esteem

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Answers to Research Hypotheses
4.2 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

REFERENCES
APPENDICES

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