EFFECTIVENESS OF FAMILY PLANNING ON THE POPULATION IN AKWA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Chapter One: Introduction

Among the ten largest countries in the world, one is in Africa (Nigeria), five are in Asia (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan), two are in Latin America (Brazil and Mexico), one is in Northern America (United States of America), and one is in Europe (Russian Federation). Amongst these, Nigeria’s population, currently the seventh largest in the world with over 180 million people (Wordlometers, 2016) is growing the most rapidly. Consequently, the population of Nigeria is projected to surpass that of the United States by about 2050, at which point it would become the third largest country in the world (UN, 2015 ). Family  planning  according  to United Nations  Population  Funds  Activities  (UNPFA  2001)  is  a  recognized  basic  human  right  and  enables individuals and couples to determine the number and spacing of their children.       The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) stated that  family planning allows individuals and couples to  anticipate  and  attain  their  desired  number  of  children  and  the  spacing  and  timing  of  their  births.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on population growth, family planning and  the strategies of resolving population growth in Nigeria. Family planning according to United Nations Population Funds Activities (UNPFA 2001) is a recognized basic human right and enables individuals and couples to determine the number and spacing of their children. There is virtually not universally accepted theory on which a family planning research could be hinged. Nevertheless, people have approached the Problem using Health belief model by Rosen Stock et al and Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The population comprised the entire families in Isiala Mbano Local Government Area of Imo State. Sample sizes of 240 families were used for this study. 30 families were randomly drawn from each community using the simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The t-test statistics was employed to test the hypotheses formulated for the study.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking family planning and national development was made in the final chapter.

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IMPACT OF PARENTAL CONTROL AND PARENT-ADOLESCENT RELATIONSHIP ON CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AMONG ADOLESCENTS

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Adolescence is a transitional period of development from childhood to adulthood with evident biological and emotional changes. These changes bring transformation and reorganization in family relationships (Schroeder, Bulanda, Giordana, & Cernkovich, 2010). Moreover, adolescents start viewing themselves as adults and, on the contrary, parents may find it difficult to adapt to this perception. There may also be a shift in the unilateral authority enjoyed by the parents towards a mutual authority in which adolescents share decision-making power and increasing amounts of personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, interactions between the adolescent and parents can lead to conflict. Among adolescents, early adolescence (ages 10-15) has been associated with higher levels of conflict with parents, and adolescent-parent relationships may be transformed dramatically during this period.Criminal behaviors, including physical aggression and delinquency, are public health concerns because they may result in physical injury and/or involvement with the juvenile justice system including arrests and incarcerations (Odgers et al., 2008). Such

Criminal behaviors, including physical aggression and delinquency, are public health concerns because they may result in physical injury and/or involvement with the juvenile justice system including arrests and incarcerations (Odgers et al., 2008). Such behaviours exhibited at school may lead to suspension or expulsion, which take students out of the classroom, and thus decrease their academic instructional time and potential acquisition of skills (Zimmerman, Schutte, Taskinen, & Koller, 2013). Peer-based aggression and delinquency may also result in more sustained involvement with peer groups who support and engage in these criminal behaviors. However, prevalence rates of physical aggression and delinquency, unfortunately, increase during adolescence (Steinberg, 2008).

The consequences of this malady and other juvenile crimes such as examination malpractice, alcoholism, forgery, rape, armed robbery, and other numerous social ills have posed as a threat to community peace. In this study, parent-adolescent relationships are being explored from the perspective of adolescence. The present study explored parent-adolescent attachment; adolescent views towards parental guidance; adolescent perception about parental control; adolescent views of parental pressure; and the type of communication between the adolescent and the parent from a relationship perspective. Additionally, the study investigated differences between adolescents who had been involved in delinquent behavior and those who had not.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Chapter two focuses on the literature review, and explored the extent to which parent-child relationship could predict criminal behaviours among adolescents. Specific reference are made to the following: (1) family structure as producing agents of juvenile delinquency;(2) the relationship between family background and adolescent criminal behaviour(3) Examine the reaction of adolescent boys who get involved in delinquent behaviors towards parental control, guidance, and pressure when compared to adolescent boys who are not involved in delinquent behaviors

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were also made in chapter five

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INFLUENCE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE ON DECISION-MAKING AND ICT READINESS OF TEACHERS IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
Information and communication technology (ICT) has infiltrated society to the point of becoming essential to much of its everyday functioning. People rely on ICT to communicate, access information, and stay connected in an increasing globalised community. The major way of developing the ICT capability of students is through the implementation of the three facets of ICT-based curriculum which comprise: learning about ICT, learning with ICT and learning through ICT. It is in this regard that Tanner (2003) presents ICT as discipline, resource and key skill. ICT as discipline refers to ICT as a subject in the curriculum.

The transformational leader identifies and utilizes a potential follower‘s ICT existent need or demand. Moreover, the transforming leader perceives potential intentions in followers, tries to find to satisfy higher needs, and treats the follower as full person. Consequently, transforming leadership is a blend of mutual encouragement that turns followers into leaders and possibly, leaders into moral agents. Burns also states that the transforming leader is one who, though primarily motivated by the search for personal appreciation and recognition, eventually advances the common purpose by understanding the aims of his or her followers.

Although students exhibit significant difficulties in learning through the use of computer, considerably less attention is devoted to remediating these problems in comparison to behavioral and social difficulties. Given the strong correlation between failure and overall success, the purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of principals’ transformative leadership skills in decision-making process and its implication for teachers’ adoption of ICT tools in their classrooms. Conducting this study is justified on the basis that scholarly attention is yet to be drawn to this area of study which this research seeks to fill the vacuum.

Chapter Two: Literature Review
Chapter two focuses on the literature review. Variables that were taken as independent variables in this study were transformational leadership factors; such as principals’ ability to engage in decision making and principals’ ability to promote and encourage teachers’ professional development. The dependent variable was teachers’ readiness to use computer or other ICT platforms in their classes.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It entails the Research Design, Population of the Study, Sample and Sampling Procedure, Instrument of Data Collection, Procedure of Administration, and Method of Data Analysis. Data collected from the respondents were analyzed by inferential statistics. Specifically, Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient and Simple Regression Analysis were used. The Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was to examine the existence of relationship between transformational leadership style on decision-making and ICT readiness of teachers in Nigerian schools and regression analysis was used to ascertain the amount of variations.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were made in chapter five.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.2. Conceptual Framework
2.2.1 Transformational Leadership
2.2.2 Transformational Leadership in an Educational Context
2.3 Computer Use
2.3.1 Teachers’ Attitudes to Computer Use
2.3.2 Access and Computer Use
2.4 Correlation between Principal Transformative Leadership and Teachers’ ICT Usage
2.4.1 Training and Computer Use
2.4.2 Support and Computer Use
2.5 Decision Making Process and Teachers’ Participation
2.6 Computer Aided Instruction as a Motivational Teaching Strategy
2.7 Appraisal of literature

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

INFLUENCE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE ON DECISION-MAKING AND ICT READINESS OF TEACHERS IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS

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IMPACT OF THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
Teaching is a task that involves both the teacher and the learner. The teacher and the learner have much to gain from each other. For teaching to be effective the teacher requires both audio and visual aids that would enable his activity be more effective and realistic. This is why instructional materials become very relevant to the teacher and to the task of teaching in secondary schools.

The main difficulty for the successful implementation of instructional materials is not a shortage of hardware, but rather the fact that many Biology teachers are not ready to use technology in the classroom. In fact, many teachers feel that teaching and learning do not necessarily need to be accompanied by the use of instructional materials Azikiwe (1998), Williams (1990) and Kolo (2006) have noted the above mentioned observation. Teaching and learning therefore appears very abstract and difficult for the learners as they use their audio sense only. It has been observed that teachers find it a herculean task to accompany their lessons with relevant instructional media such as audio aids, visual aids and audio-visual aids.

This is perhaps due to laziness, or lack of resourcefulness or lack of innovativeness or gross incompetence of the teachers. Whichever is the case, this lack of proper use of instructional media constitutes a great deal of problem for effective teaching and learning of the subject. Unfortunately, few studies have been carried out on the teacher’s use of instructional materials in Biology and secondary school students’ academic performance.

Chapter Two: Literature Review
This chapter focuses on the literature review; the importance of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Biology; the problems faced by Biology teachers in using instructional materials effectively; the attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials in Biology

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the impact of the use of instructional materials on the academic performance of students in Biology using Lagos State as case study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Simple percentage was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were made in chapter five.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Instructional Material as a Concept
2.3 The Functions of Instructional Materials
2.4 Classification of Instructional Materials
2.5 The Problems Faced By Biology Teachers in Using Instructional Materials
2.6 The Attitude of Teachers towards the Use of Instructional Materials in Biology
2.7 Impact of the Use of Instructional Materials Students’ Performance
2.8 Appraisal of Literature

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations

Impact Of The Use Of Instructional Materials On The Academic Performance Of Students In Biology

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