MICRO-CREDIT AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF MARKET WOMEN IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Micro-credit schemes give poor people access to small amounts of financial credit to assist them in economic activities. As Naila Kabeer (1998) has noted, micro-credit programmes have become an increasingly important intervention for addressing poverty, through a strategy of direct lending or of financial intermediation. Further, in the 1990s the World Bank outlined a bilateral approach towards enhancing development growth for the poor: policies that supported the use of labour (by harnessing market incentives and other means) and the provision of basic services to the poor. In view of this, the bank and many other agencies have strongly maintained and advocated the implementation of micro-credit programmes as a positive means of enhancing women’s economic empowerment, especially in Third World countries (World Bank Report, 2000).

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The micro-credit scheme is the latest in a line of historical and conceptual frameworks for approaching interrelated development programmes or policies, designed and promoted as instruments of change. Concerns for women’s economic empowerment, voice and gender equality, especially within the household and community have informed the proliferation and implementation of these development schemes by many NGOs and governmental organisations.

Thus, the overall framework of this chapter will constitute two different parts: first it will examine various definitions of ‘development’ and its relevance to gender and development, and secondly, it will evaluate various development approaches and examine their significance to women’s economic empowerment and well-being in a broad spectrum.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The population for this study consists of all market women in Ita-Osun (popularly called New Market). The sample for this study constitutes one hundred (100) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis will be adopted.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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Barriers to Hiv Care in Rural Communities: Case Study of Abuja Municipal Area Council

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
The world continues to battle the HIV pandemic along with related social and economic challenges. Strategies applied in developed countries seem to be containing the spread; however, results of efforts in many African countries are daunting. At the end of 2009, an estimated 33.3 million people were infected with HIV globally, 22.5 million (68%) of global total were in Sub-Saharan Africa, and about 2.98 million in Nigeria with second highest after South Africa of people living with HIV in the World (UNAIDS , 2010).
Based on field research conducted by the researcher in Abuja Municipal Area Council, most free HIV care centers are mainly located in urban areas in spite of higher prevalence in rural areas. This corroborates with the findings of Kombe (2007) who noted that very few healthcare workers are deployed to the rural areas. This raises questions about whether the HIV treatment services is able to reach the rural groups given that inaccessibility of good health care centres, stigmatization and discrimination, etc., stands as barriers to effective HIV care in the rural area. Hence, this study intends to expand on these aforementioned barriers document as well as proffer solutions to them.

Chapter Two: Literature Review
The purpose of the chapter is to present the review of literatures that is relevant to the study. The reviewed exercise covered published works, journals, magazines, newspapers, government publications.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This study utilized both the descriptive and survey methods. The population of this study is made up nurses and patients of HIV from ten health care centres in Abuja Municipal Area Council. From the ten (10) health care centre, ten (10) respondents including the nurses and HIV patients are samples to get a fair representative of set of respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Simple percentage analysis will be used to analyze the data collected.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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HIV CARE IN NIGERIA (TABLE OF CONTENT)

EFFECTIVENESS OF FAMILY PLANNING ON THE POPULATION IN AKWA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Chapter One: Introduction

Among the ten largest countries in the world, one is in Africa (Nigeria), five are in Asia (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan), two are in Latin America (Brazil and Mexico), one is in Northern America (United States of America), and one is in Europe (Russian Federation). Amongst these, Nigeria’s population, currently the seventh largest in the world with over 180 million people (Wordlometers, 2016) is growing the most rapidly. Consequently, the population of Nigeria is projected to surpass that of the United States by about 2050, at which point it would become the third largest country in the world (UN, 2015 ). Family  planning  according  to United Nations  Population  Funds  Activities  (UNPFA  2001)  is  a  recognized  basic  human  right  and  enables individuals and couples to determine the number and spacing of their children.       The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) stated that  family planning allows individuals and couples to  anticipate  and  attain  their  desired  number  of  children  and  the  spacing  and  timing  of  their  births.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on population growth, family planning and  the strategies of resolving population growth in Nigeria. Family planning according to United Nations Population Funds Activities (UNPFA 2001) is a recognized basic human right and enables individuals and couples to determine the number and spacing of their children. There is virtually not universally accepted theory on which a family planning research could be hinged. Nevertheless, people have approached the Problem using Health belief model by Rosen Stock et al and Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The population comprised the entire families in Isiala Mbano Local Government Area of Imo State. Sample sizes of 240 families were used for this study. 30 families were randomly drawn from each community using the simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The t-test statistics was employed to test the hypotheses formulated for the study.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking family planning and national development was made in the final chapter.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF FAMILY PLANNING FAMILY PLANNING

IMPACT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOLS

IMPACT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOLS

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Chapter One: Introduction

Adolescent pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 18th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult. The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school.  The major problem with adolescent pregnancy and relating to this study is that many girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities. Although, studies have shown that delaying adolescent births could significantly lower population growth rates, potentially generating broad economic and social benefits, in addition to improving the health of adolescents; scholars are yet to directly link pregnancy on early and later adolescents as a factor which affects students’ performance in schools.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of pregnancy on early and later adolescents on students’ performance in schools and its implications for guidance. This chapter outlines the review of literature. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. The sub-headings are: theoretical framework, Teenage pregnancy and school attendance, teenage pregnancy and emotional behaviour, and teenage pregnancy and school performance. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of all secondary school teenagers in Ijebu-Ife metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The sample for this study constituted three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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