IMPACT OF SCHOOL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT ON LEARNING OUTCOME OF STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE

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Chapter One: Introduction

The sustainability of schools relies in part on the availability and utilization of funds available to support recurrent costs for systems upkeep at the school level. Studies (Bada and Oguguo, 2011) shows that heads of schools report shortages of funds which impact on the daily running of school programmes. Almost all institutions and organizations in Nigeria have been affected by recessions (Bada and Oguguo, 2011). During economic downturns, the world seems to focus on managing budgets. Since 2008 the federal government has taken dramatic measures to help the financial state of many institutions struggling with the current recession. Of those measures, massive bailout packages worth billions of dollars have been proposed and passed to help institutions across the nation.

Educational leaders have long sought to understand how to allocate finance to improve school and students’ learning outcome. Schools receive funding for the sole purpose of improving educational opportunities and achievement for students. Yet the benefits of increasing that finance are widely disputed. Research conducted outside Nigeria indicates that the level of finance in a school does make a difference in student achievement (Odden, Goertz, & Goertz, 2008).  However, limited research exists in Nigeria on whether increases in funding, utilized effectively and efficiently, does increase student achievement. Financing is often challenging to study because of the lack of disaggregation of district and school level expenditures. Educational boards have not historically kept track of categories of expenditures and are unable to aide researchers in their quest for financial data separated by theme.

Many issues amplify the importance of effective financing and management because of the implications on school funding for primary schools. Funding  for  basic  education  has  come  primarily  from  federal  and  local governments finance over the years; state governments have tended to prioritize tertiary education relying on local governments’ finance for primary education. A general lack of accountability inherent in current  practices  leads  to  inefficiency  in  use  of  finance.  Officials  estimate  that  these  challenges account  for  40%  –  45  %  of  allocated  funds.  Recurrent  capital  expenditure  imbalances  in  budgetary allocations  aggravate  the  challenges  and  stifle  the  provision  of  education  infrastructure. The  non-inclusion of performance conditions in the criteria for federal matching grants to state governments on basic education may lead to lack of incentives for performance and inefficiency. 

Schools are under even greater pressure to do more with less and maintain a clear process to decide how to allocate finance in areas that are needed the most and are the most effective. An important concern then, is understanding the connection between resource utilization, data-directed decision-making, and monitoring the use of resource utilization in schools to improve student learning outcome.

The prime purpose of this study was to investigate how financing and school management impacts on learning outcome in primary public schools in Benue State. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following research objectives:

  1. Conceptualize the three-model variables of resource allocation, government funding, and school financial management as they impact on students learning outcome;
  2. Determine the extent to which resource allocation produce effects, feelings, thoughts, and motivations for learners in relation to their learning outcome;
  3. Establish the link between government funding and level of learning outcome among students
  4. Find out if school financial management, with special focus on budgeting have direct consequences on learning outcome of students

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on impact of school financial management on learning outcome of students in Lagos State. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of some selected secondary schools in Lagos East Senatorial District covering Ikorodu, Somolu, Kosofe, Epe and Ibeju-Lekki. The total population of this study is 2,728. The table below further describes the population. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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INTERGROUP RELATIONS IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF YORUBA-HAUSA IN SAGAMU UP TO 2005

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Research Proposal

RNigeria is a large multi-ethnic country where intra-ethnic cleavages remain a critical problem and ethnic violence has erupted periodically. Among the prominent conflicts in Nigeria are: Ife-Modakeke Crisis in Osun State; Yoruba-Hausa Clashes in Sagamu, Ogun State; Eleme-Okrika Conflict in Rivers State; Zango-Kataf in Kaduna State; Tiv-Jukun in  Wukari, Taraba State; Ogoni-Adoni in Rivers State; Chamba-Kuteb in Taraba State;  Itsekiri-Ijaw/Urhobo in Delta State; Aguleri-Umuleri in Anambra State; Ijaw-Ilaje  conflict in Ondo State; Basa-Egbura in Nassarawa State; Hausa/Fulani-Sawaya in Bauchi, among others. These conflicts have provided a pattern that makes scholars to attribute their causes to greed, power and wealth distribution.

The impacts of these conflicts have led to loss of lives, displacement of people, destruction of properties, etc. Thus, the greatest challenge facing the process of conflict resolution in Nigeria is the issue of maintaining balance among the conflicting parties by the third party (i.e the Nigerian Government). This balance, however, can only be met if the roots of the conflict(s) are traced and treated fairly. Going by this analysis, the lessons from the key conflicts in Southwest Nigeria makes a good study because of its strategic importance in Nigerian history; and again, its prospect for conflict resolution in Nigeria.

The people of Sagamu were said to have migrated from Iremo quarters in Ile-Ife to a place called Yemule, a location between Ijebu-Ode and Agoro on Ijebu-Ode Sagamu road. After a brief spell they moved again to Okun-Owa from where they later settled at Orile-Offin which is about 5 kilometres from Sagamu and it is no encircled by the rubber plantation which extends from Sagamu to Ikenne.

The impact of the Hausa community in Sagamu town had not been well documented especially in contemporary periods, rather than pre-colonial periods. The Hausa had settled in Sagamu before Nigeria gained independence in 1960 and had developed great trade partners, especially in kolanut trade.

However, the Hausa community had grown rapidly in the area of textiles, cattle and recently in petroleum Distribution to the extent that they had develop their community and the town at large. This is the reason why the researcher, needs to examine Hausa impact in the area of social and economy Development to the  year 2005 and look on migration and settlement of the Hausa from 1960-2005.

The objectives of this study are to:

  1. Examine the geographical environment and peopling of Sagamu town;
  2. Discuss the formation of Hausa community in Sabo area of Sagamu
  3. Analyse the socio-economic relationship and competitions between the Yoruba and Hausa groups in Sagamu
  4. Discuss the outbreak of conflicts and means of resolutions between Yoruba and Hausa groups in Sagamu

This study will equip our knowledge of origin of Sagamu as well as how the Hausa came to settle in Sagamu. It will also enhance our understanding of causes and consequences of conflict between the traditional inhabitants of Sagamu and the Hausa community of the town. In addition it will be a source of reference to other researchers.

This study adopts the historical research methodology. In regard to this method, the research depends largely on primary sources especially oral tradition, letters, archival documents. Over ten people have been contacted in the various communities under study for oral interview. Different modes of collecting data (mostly oral interview) were adopted. Tape recorder was employed to collect data. The language used in collecting data was Yoruba and Hausa and later transcribed to English language and then cross-examined to check their level of objectivity and relevance.       Secondary sources were also sourced to enrich the research work. Published works on the history of the Sagamu people and also the history of Hausa community in Sagamu were consulted to provide a scholarly guideline for the work.

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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF NEPAD TO AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT

Chapter One: Introduction

The critical challenge of development for Africa in the 21st century is an issue around which there is considerable consensus. There is, however, little consensus on the nature of the crisis, the required development framework and trajectory or the ‘desired state’. In the context of the debate, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) has been promoted by its authors and sponsors as Africa’s development blueprint for meeting its development challenges. However, much of the criticism of NEPAD has focused, procedurally, on the lack of consultation in its drafting, and, paradigmatically, on its neoliberal content. Many scholars are of the opinion that adoption of NEPAD’s policy has not translated into development of Africa. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on the framework to measure the contributions of NEPAD to African development. Hence, this study seeks to analyse relevant areas of NEPAD  such as poverty reduction, trade promotion, good governance and institutional reforms that have shaped development in Africa.

The general aim of this study is to critically analyse the contributions of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to the development of Africa. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Measure the impact of implementation of NEPAD on poverty reduction in Africa;
  2. Examine the influence of the adoption and implementation of NEPAD on trade promotion in Africa;
  3. Analyse the impact of implementation of NEPAD’s framework on good governance in Africa;
  4. Examine the influence of implementation of NEPAD on institutional reforms in Africa

Both scholars and civil society thought of NEPAD in the light of past socioeconomic development plans, such as the Lagos Plan of Action. Their opinions did not give a concrete analysis of the concept of NEPAD, and they mainly believed that African leaders were beating the same drums of the development plans that their predecessors, such as Kwame Nkrumah, had played in the 1960s. This study moved away from that perspective as it identified the challenges faced by NEPAD and also examined some stakeholders’ perceptions of NEPAD since its inception. It was on this basis that the researcher evaluated the perceptions and challenges of NEPAD.

Many scholars and writers had viewed NEPAD using different ideological perspectives. Two groups were identified: those who thought NEPAD was doomed to fail because it tied Africa to the apron strings of the West and those who thought that NEPAD was the right step forward and held the key to Africa’s economic development. This research had no preconceptions of whether NEPAD would fail or succeed. The researcher set out to understand the indigenous African perceptions of NEPAD since its adoption and to study the challenges faced by NEPAD in achieving its set goals and objectives.

Although individual stakeholders had their various perceptions about Africa’s socio-economic development plans, they needed to be aware of the processes of NEPAD and its challenges before making a well-informed judgment whether it would succeed or fail. The final analysis of this study provides an evaluation of whether NEPAD was on course to achieving its set goals and objectives. So, this research is important for future studies in that it demonstrates the importance of publicizing economic plans and policies for development and of examining past economic plans, their successes, and their failures before developing new economic plans.

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the contributions of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to the development of Africa. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of two major groups of respondents. The first group comprised of 180 staff of NEPAD while the second group consist of beneficiaries of NEPAD programme. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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MICRO-CREDIT AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF MARKET WOMEN IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Micro-credit schemes give poor people access to small amounts of financial credit to assist them in economic activities. As Naila Kabeer (1998) has noted, micro-credit programmes have become an increasingly important intervention for addressing poverty, through a strategy of direct lending or of financial intermediation. Further, in the 1990s the World Bank outlined a bilateral approach towards enhancing development growth for the poor: policies that supported the use of labour (by harnessing market incentives and other means) and the provision of basic services to the poor. In view of this, the bank and many other agencies have strongly maintained and advocated the implementation of micro-credit programmes as a positive means of enhancing women’s economic empowerment, especially in Third World countries (World Bank Report, 2000).

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The micro-credit scheme is the latest in a line of historical and conceptual frameworks for approaching interrelated development programmes or policies, designed and promoted as instruments of change. Concerns for women’s economic empowerment, voice and gender equality, especially within the household and community have informed the proliferation and implementation of these development schemes by many NGOs and governmental organisations.

Thus, the overall framework of this chapter will constitute two different parts: first it will examine various definitions of ‘development’ and its relevance to gender and development, and secondly, it will evaluate various development approaches and examine their significance to women’s economic empowerment and well-being in a broad spectrum.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The population for this study consists of all market women in Ita-Osun (popularly called New Market). The sample for this study constitutes one hundred (100) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis will be adopted.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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