Chapter One: Introduction

            Thousands of militants, grouped under different names such as The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), the Ijaw Youth Council (lYC) and Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), and recently Niger Delta Avengers, etc, have over the years carried out multiple attacks on strategic oil and gas installations in the Niger Delta region. Niger Delta transverses nine of the thirty six states of Nigeria, namely: Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo, and Rivers (Obi, 2005). Most of the oil exploration so far had been at the core Niger Delta states of Beyelsa, Delta and Rivers. These three states had witnessed the major crises in the region. However, on 26 June 2009, the Federal Government of Nigeria announced that it would grant an amnesty and unconditional pardon to militants in the Niger Delta. A 60-day period was allowed for armed youths to surrender their weapons in return for training and rehabilitation by the government. The Amnesty officially resulted in the demobilisation of 30,000 militants, paying them allowances and providing training for a smaller number. It has markedly reduced conflict in the region.

Patterns of militant attacks on oil installations, hostage taking and direct confrontations with Nigerian security agencies have drawn both local and international attention to their deplorable situation through their restiveness. The Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF), founded by Alhaji Mujahid Asari-Dokubo, and the Niger Delta Vigilante (NDV), created by Ateke Tom, led more than 100 other smaller armed groups to violently engage the Federal Government and multinational oil companies in a ‘war of attrition’(Ojakorotu & Olawale, 2009). Asari’s NDPVF launched a series of attacks on oil wells and installations, disrupting oil production. The militant groups also attempted to control oil resources through oil bunkering, an exercise that involves tapping pipelines. All of these have had damaging effects on oil production in the region and eventually led to shutting down of the Warri refineries several times (Akpabio & Akpan, 2010).

When Late Musa YarAdua assumed office as the nation’s president, he came up with his own idea of developing the Niger Delta, which he tagged “Niger Delta Development Plan”. He also set up the Ministry of Niger delta Affairs. Again, on 25 June 2009 he granted amnesty to the “militants” via Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) to turn in their weapons within sixty (60) days (Aaron, 2010). In addition, they militants were to renounce violence through the execution of renunciation of militancy form. The repentant militants were to be paid the sum of N65, 000 (about $430) per month for 42 months that the rehabilitation programme would cover. This is addition to daily feeding allowance of N1500 (about $10). Beyond disarmament, repentant militants are to undergo some form of skills acquisition to enable them live economically productive lives (Aaron, 2010).

Furthermore, the leaders of the militants, including Ekpemupolo (Tompolo), Henry Okah, Asari Dokubo, Fara Dagogo, Ebi Ben, Ateke Tom, Saboma Jackrich (alias Egberipapa), gave up their weapons. Tompolo and his group gave “117 assorted rifles, 5,467 rounds of live ammunitions, 20 camouflage bullet jacket, 26 camouflage uniform and two helmets. By official account, about 26,356 militants surrendered their arms at various disarmament centres. On the whole the total of 26,760 guns of different types 287,445 rounds of ammunition, 18 gun boats and 1090 dynamites were surrendered” (Omadjohwoefe, 2011:254).

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Conflict in oil rich regions is inevitable and pervasive in all kinds of human interactions at the national and local levels. How it is managed (and mismanaged) has strong effects on national security and development. This chapter examines theories of conflict management and review of relevant literature on conflict management, amnesty programme and scholarly assessment of the amnesty programme from conflict management approach.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were also made in chapter five.



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Chapter One: Introduction
Information and communication technology (ICT) has infiltrated society to the point of becoming essential to much of its everyday functioning. People rely on ICT to communicate, access information, and stay connected in an increasing globalised community. The major way of developing the ICT capability of students is through the implementation of the three facets of ICT-based curriculum which comprise: learning about ICT, learning with ICT and learning through ICT. It is in this regard that Tanner (2003) presents ICT as discipline, resource and key skill. ICT as discipline refers to ICT as a subject in the curriculum.

The transformational leader identifies and utilizes a potential follower‘s ICT existent need or demand. Moreover, the transforming leader perceives potential intentions in followers, tries to find to satisfy higher needs, and treats the follower as full person. Consequently, transforming leadership is a blend of mutual encouragement that turns followers into leaders and possibly, leaders into moral agents. Burns also states that the transforming leader is one who, though primarily motivated by the search for personal appreciation and recognition, eventually advances the common purpose by understanding the aims of his or her followers.

Although students exhibit significant difficulties in learning through the use of computer, considerably less attention is devoted to remediating these problems in comparison to behavioral and social difficulties. Given the strong correlation between failure and overall success, the purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of principals’ transformative leadership skills in decision-making process and its implication for teachers’ adoption of ICT tools in their classrooms. Conducting this study is justified on the basis that scholarly attention is yet to be drawn to this area of study which this research seeks to fill the vacuum.

Chapter Two: Literature Review
Chapter two focuses on the literature review. Variables that were taken as independent variables in this study were transformational leadership factors; such as principals’ ability to engage in decision making and principals’ ability to promote and encourage teachers’ professional development. The dependent variable was teachers’ readiness to use computer or other ICT platforms in their classes.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It entails the Research Design, Population of the Study, Sample and Sampling Procedure, Instrument of Data Collection, Procedure of Administration, and Method of Data Analysis. Data collected from the respondents were analyzed by inferential statistics. Specifically, Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient and Simple Regression Analysis were used. The Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was to examine the existence of relationship between transformational leadership style on decision-making and ICT readiness of teachers in Nigerian schools and regression analysis was used to ascertain the amount of variations.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were made in chapter five.

1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

2.0 Introduction
2.2. Conceptual Framework
2.2.1 Transformational Leadership
2.2.2 Transformational Leadership in an Educational Context
2.3 Computer Use
2.3.1 Teachers’ Attitudes to Computer Use
2.3.2 Access and Computer Use
2.4 Correlation between Principal Transformative Leadership and Teachers’ ICT Usage
2.4.1 Training and Computer Use
2.4.2 Support and Computer Use
2.5 Decision Making Process and Teachers’ Participation
2.6 Computer Aided Instruction as a Motivational Teaching Strategy
2.7 Appraisal of literature

3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings




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 4MyResearch was established in 2006 as EgoBooster Books. We initially conduct researches and publish them in EgoBooster Magazine. However, from 2009 onward, we switched to full time research by generating project topics, conducting researches and commercializing them online.

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Omotere Tope holds N.C.E.(History/C.R.S.) from Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Lagos;  B.A. Ed. (History & Diplomatic Studies) from Tai Solarin University of Education, Ogun; and M.A. (History & International Studies) from University of Ilorin, Kwara. He has undergone training at the United States Institute of Peace with Certificate of Course Completion in Conflict Analysis (online). He has publised peer reviewed articles in local and international journals. His areas of expertise is foreign policy, cultural history and contemporary international politics.

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Omotere Adunola holds N.C.E. (PES/SOS)  from Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Lagos;  B.Ed. (Childhood Education) from Tai Solarin University of Education, Ogun; and M.Ed (Early Childhood Education – in progress) from Tai Solarin University of Education, Ogun.She has researched estensively on Universal Basic Education, Childhood Education and Inclusive Education.

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Background to the Study

Independent countries use economic indices such as inflation, trade deficits, unemployment and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to measure the performance of their country’s economic development and the workability of its foreign direct investment policy. Taken together, these statistical leading indicators create a data map that countries use to define their foreign policy.  Understanding the politics of GDP, the President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration directed the Nigerian Bureau of Statistics (NBS) to rebase the country’s GDP which invariably put it to $509.9 billion in 2013 making Nigeria to become the 27th largest economy in the world and first in Africa.[1] This was intended to expose sectors where Nigeria’s economy has recorded dynamic growth and the need for expanded foreign direct investment inflows. However, not every regime in Nigeria has pursued this strategic economic policy. It is therefore, the intent of this study to examine the foreign policy of each regime in lieu of the country’s economic growth taking the GDP as the measuring statistical yardstick for each government since 1960 up to 2015.

The political regimes in Nigeria can be classified into military and civilian. Of the 55 years of independence (1960-2015), 28 years have seen military regimes ruled. The civilian regime following independence was parliamentary, fashioned after the British model,while the 1979-1983 civilian regime was modelled after the American presidential system.[2] A common trend was the military seizing power after accusing the preceding regime (military or civilian) of corruption, nepotism, ineptitude and the inability to offer solutions to the economic problems of the country. Each of the governments had been quick to promise and express the desire to improve the standard of living of the vast majority of the people by stimulating growth and development[3].

Generally, Nigeria’s increasing profile in its foreign relations implies that the nation has regained its role as a leading player in multilateral politics and diplomacy. It can be said therefore that during the period (covering 1960-2015) Nigeria’s foreign policy has changed over time with each regime reflecting the domestic economic environment.

Objectives of the Study

The broad aim of this study is to examine Nigerian foreign policy and economic development from 1960 up to 2015. This study seeks to achieve the following objectives:

(i) Provide a detailed background of Nigeria’s foreign policy under successive governments from 1960 to 2013 by using the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to measure their economic performance;

 (ii) Analyse the policy of economic partnership especially with the western powers and the implication of this partnership on Nigeria economic growth between 1960 and 2015; and lastly,

 (iii) Assess the challenges each government faced in achieving the economic development in Nigeria;

  1. b) Identify and evaluate the role of domestic and international environment in shaping Nigeria’s foreign policy and economic development since 1960.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study focuses on Nigeria’s foreign policy and economic development from 1960 to 2015. It looks at Nigeria’s foreign policy under successive governments from 1960 to 2015 by using the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to measure their economic performance.  Other areas which this study covers include the domestic factors that influenced Nigerian foreign policy since 1960. Moreover, the key achievements of various administrations in domestic economic growth, political stability, regional security, and international participation are covered in this research.

In producing such a work like this, the problem confronting the researcher is not the scarcity of materials but its availability some of which are bias in their presentation. Finally, there is the question of time and fund which may serve as impediments to this research.

Nevertheless, these imitating factors will greatly be managed to make the research work more objective in its presentation.

Significance of the Study

This study is important to decision makers and students of International Relations, Defence and Strategic Studies as well as History and Diplomatic Studies; for it traced the historical development of Nigeria foreign policy and economic development from 1960 to 2015.

It helps to re—affirm the bold attempt made by the various successive governments to establish Nigerians a major player in the comity of nations. Also, this research work will help at providing information on the domestic factors that influenced Nigeria’s foreign policy since 1960.

Finally, it is useful to scholars’ especially diplomatic historians, political scientists, economists and international relations experts in their research. Diplomats like ambassadors, high commissioners and staffers of foreign ministries will benefit from the work.


Research Methodology

Qualitative historical research method was used in carrying out this study. Qualitative research methods are often appropriate when researchers seek to describe, explain, and explore or build a theory. Salkind (2003) portrayed qualitative research as a non-experimental method that does not directly test for cause and effect. Qualitative research methodology was most appropriate for this exploratory study because the intent to establish the characteristics of Nigeria’s foreign policy and the patterns of economic expansion, stagnation, or contraction between 1960 and 2013. This conception is consistent with Malizia’s definition of qualitative research as an approach useful for describing trends.[4]

Source of Data:

The research draws on two main data sources: primary and secondary sources.  A critical examination of the dramatic relations between Nigeria and other countries since independence will be analyzed using findings from both primary and secondary sources.

The primary source which acquired data mainly through semi-structured interviews with individuals and groups from relevant organizations and institutions. Seventeen (17) Individuals from the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (5 people), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (4 people), Central Bank of Nigeria (8 people) have been contacted and already interview. Meanwhile, the selection of key informants from the above public sectors was done bearing in mind their position in these institutions as well as their knowledge of the subject area. The other primary sources include written documents such as government publications, letters, correspondence, documentaries and newspapers.

Furthermore, this research work depends largely on archival materials to gather relevant materials on the study. Field trips will also be employed to access information from the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in order to get relevant information regarding the research work. Moreover, this study depends on secondary sources such as books, journals, conference proceedings and internet sources which are to be explored to enrich this work.

Area of study:

Major areas that the study covers include the concepts of foreign policy and economic development;  evolution of Nigeria’s foreign policy; Neo-Liberal Policies and Economic Development (from 1960 to 2013); and Nigeria’s economic engagement with other countries in the period of our study.

Data Analysis

Basically, secondary growth accounting and GDP indices were used to identify periods of economic expansion, stagnation and contraction during the study period. Gaps in the data, if any, were filled from other sources, including publications from the World Bank, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The growth accounting and other economic indices included: the agricultural sector’s share of output; per capita GNP, real GDP, real per capita GDP growth rate, income and investment; capital stock, labor, and Total Factor Productivity (TFP).

      The Engle-Yoo (1991) multivariate cointegration econometrics dynamic model for Nigeria is developed to conduct quantitative policy analysis. This focuses on the linkages between variables of foreign policy implementation and its direct impact on oil, agriculture, manufacturing, mining and quarrying, and other relevant sectors of Nigeria.

Weakness of the methodology

      The major weakness inherent in historical research methods is the over dependence on primary data. The inaccuracies in the analysis of the interviewees as well as the bias nature of some of the documents provided are some of the weakness of the research methods. To correct this trend, economic an empirical analysis of the macro economy-wide framework using the Engle-Yoo dynamic co-integration econometric model for Nigeria’s economic development is deemed suitable and relevant for providing feedback and policy options for attaining rapid economic development success in the country

[1] Vincent Ikuomola , “Economic growth driving Nigeria’s foreign policy, says Jonathan”, http://thenationonlineng.net/new/economic-growth-driving-nigerias-foreign-policy-says-jonathan/. Accessed 20/10/2014

[2] Gana, A. T. 2000. Governance and the Economy Under the Military Rule. Bullion. Publication of Central Bank of Nigeria. Volume 24. No. 1 Jan./March. 2000:37

[3]Alalade, F. O. Democracy and Economic Development: Prospect for the Fourth Republic. Bullion. Publication of Central Bank of Nigeria. Volume 24. No. 1 Jan./March, 2000:48

[4] Malizia, E. E. & Feser, E. J. Understanding Economic Development. London: Rutgers, 2000:12




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