THE EFFECTS OF STUDY HABIT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGUN STATE



Chapter One: Introduction

Research on the correlation between study habit and students academic achievement has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the national Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the students. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2019) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and study habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

               However, studies of school achievement indicate that most students are under achievers (Okegbile, 2017). A major reason for students’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2018) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that students, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing study materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

               Study habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work privately. Azikiwe (2017) describes the study habit as “the adopted way and manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain mastery of the subject”. According to her, “good study habits are good assets to learners because they (habits) assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization and consequent excellent performance, while opposite constitute constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure”.

               Good (2018) define the term study habits as: The student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc”. Going by this definition it literally means that good study habit produces positive academic performance while inefficient study habit leads to academic failure.

               In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

               According to Hussain (2016) secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor has caused serious damage to the achievement status to secondary school students.

               Achievement is generally a pedagogical terminology used while determining learners’ success in formal education and which is measured through reports examinations, researches, and ratings with numerous factors of variables exerting influence. Essentially, the National Policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) has identified school achievement contents according to school subjects which are classified as core or elective subjects.

               Although studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on students academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the effect of study habit on students’ academic performance. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of some selected secondary schools in Ijebu Ode Local Government area of Ogun State as case study. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.3 Empirical Review
2.4 Appraisal of Literature

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Answers to Research Hypotheses
4.2 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation


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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PRESIDENT YAR’ADUA AND PRESIDENT JONATHAN’S FOREIGN POLICIES, 2007-2015


RESEARCH PROPOSAL

The recent outbreaks of civil wars and conflicts in Niger (2007), Guinea Bissau (2008-2009), Côte d’Ivoire (2011), Sudan (2009-2014), etc., have received little or no pro-active peace support operations from Nigeria. This is in sharp contrast to the past active engagement of Nigeria in the sub-region. The aggressive articulation of African-centeredness in Nigeria’s foreign policy under General Murtala  Mohammed  (1975-1976) made the colonial and apartheid regimes in South Africa to reduce or stop their activities. At a point, Murtala challenged the United States of America and South Africa when they planned  to  install  a  puppet  regime  in  Angola.[1] General  Obasanjo equally employed cultural diplomacy to assert the supremacy of Nigeria in the region by hosting  high  level international conferences like  the  World  Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC 77’), the  World Conference for Action  against  Apartheid  and ECOWAS Heads of State  Summit, etc. The government also applied militancy in its foreign policy by ‘nationalizing’ British assets in Nigeria such as the British Petroleum in retaliation to Britain’s decision to sell crude oil to South Africa. This action, coupled with leading other African countries to boycott the 1978 Montreal Olympics forced the British government under  Thatcher to reverse its proposed  recognition  of  and  support for  the minority  racist  government in  Zimbabwe.[2]

            The country’s foreign policy has taken a new turn, leaning more toward the citizens. President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua’s administration (2007-2010) who took over from President Olusegun Obasanjo (1999-2007) concentrated more on the internal restructuring of Nigeria than on external relations. He worked on fighting corruption and literally settled the problem of the Niger Delta by offering Amnesty to the militants. However, critics have labeled his foreign policy posture as ‘inactive, dormant and unfocused’.[3]  It was typified by last minute cancellations of international appointments and a lull in filling ambassadorial positions, including that of Washington. While the country paid its dues to Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the African Union (AU), it did little to pursue an assertive diplomacy in the region. In the end, Nigeria entered the world scene as a terrorist country as a result of the attempted bombing of a US-bound airplane by Nigeria-born Umar Farouk Abdul Mutallab.[4]

In 2009, the late President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua apologetically lamented the non-representation of Nigeria at the G-20 Pittsburgh Summit of heads of states. According to him, it is a sad thing “when 20 leaders in the leading countries in the world are meeting and Nigeria is not there. This is something we need to reflect upon. We have the population, we have the potentials, we have the ability and the capacity and we have the will. What do we lack?”[5] By implication, the foreign policy stance of Yar’Adua rested on population, resources and other traditional elements of power. However, the administration did not claim a regional power status based on these power indices.[6] Rather, he advocated citizen diplomacy where the implementation of the 7-Point Agenda took the centre-stage instead of the historical African centered foreign policy.

The “Transformation Agenda” of the former President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan is anchored on the promotion  and  protection  of  the  welfare  of  Nigerians citizens at home and abroad. However,  the dilemma of modern day diplomacy has been one of the challenges of the present administration: either to continue with the traditional African-centeredness policy or evolve a 21st century policy that will make Nigeria survive in a competitive global world.

Insecurity, poverty and corruption have been the greatest challenge to administrations of Yar’Adua and Jonathan. In the words of Chief Emeka Anyaoku, a former Secretary-General of the Commonwealth and Chairman of the Presidential Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs, “The insecurity in the land is a drag on our foreign policy no doubt, because our standing up abroad depends to a large extent on our domestic conditions. So, to the extent that we have insecurity at home, it is a draw back to our foreign policy.”[7] Based on this, the Jonathan’s administration directed the Presidential Advisory Council on International Relations (PACIR) to coordinate the reviewing of Nigeria’s current foreign policy to be investment oriented. Coupled with his interactive pulse with Nigerians abroad during his foreign visits, the President asked the nation’s foreign policy experts, seasoned diplomats, professionals and the intelligentsia to ‘chart a new way for the future without discarding the past’.[8]

Given this background, this study sets out to comparatively examine Nigeria’s engagement with the rest of the world under these two leaders: former President Umar Yar’Adua (2007-2010) and President Goodluck Jonathan.

Research Questions

  1. What relationship exists between the foreign policy posture of President Umar Musa Yar’Adua and President Ebele Goodluck Jonathan?
  2. Did the 7-Point Agenda of Yar’Adua  and the Transformation Agenda of Jonathan have any significant impact on Nigeria’s economic status as a regional power in Africa between 2007 and 2015?
  3. How did insecurity in the Niger Delta affect the status of Nigeria in the comity of nations under Yar’Adua?
  4. What implications has Boko Haram insurgency have on Nigeria’s position in the comity of nations under Jonathan?
  5. Is there a nexus between Yar’Adua and Jonathan’s foreign policy toward Citizen Diplomacy?
  6. Are there differences in their patterns of engagements with peace-support operations in Africa?

This study adopts a historical research method will be used in carrying out this study. However, a critical examination of the dramatic relations between Nigeria’s foreign policy and development will be analyzed using findings from both primary and secondary sources.


[1] Nigerian Army. Geo-Politics: Lecture Notes For Senior Staff On ‘Nigeria In International Affairs’. Abuja, 2011, p.6

[2] Obioma  P.  O. “The Foreign  Policy  Process of  Nigeria”. (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis), University  of Edinburgh., 1986, p.6

[3] Niyi A.,  The Domestication of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy. The Punch Newspaper, Tuesday, October 4, 2011.

[4] Lauren P., Nigeria: Current Issues and U.S. Policy. Congressional Research Service, p.11

[5] ThisDay Newspaper, April 6, 2009, p.80

[6] Reuben, A.  “A Sad Yar’adua and the G-20 Summit”.  April 5, 2009. Accessed from http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/columnists/a-sad-yaradua-and-the-g-20-summit.html  30/12/2013.

[7] R.O. Ajetunmob and T.F. Omotere, “African-Centeredness Of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy: Moving From Anthropological Diplomacy To Citizen Diplomacy”. A Paper presented at the biennial conference of the Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, University of Abuja,  2012

[8]  Adelusi, O.P.  and Oluwashakin, A., “Foreign Policy And Nigerians In Diaspora: An Analysis Of President Goodluck Jonathan’s Foreign Policy Review (2011)” http://olufemiadelusi.blogspot.com/2013/10/foreign-policy-and-nigerians-in.html

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEARNING STYLES AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT STUDENTS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

Learning Styles



Chapter One: Introduction

Learning styles refer to the different approaches to learning, knowledge processing and problem-solving that students use (Mark, 2013).  Learning styles differ among students. Some of the ways learning styles between individuals can differ are amongst achievement levels, gender, age, and culture. Individuals’ achievement levels can be high versus low academic achievement. Thus, awareness of the person’s learning style will help to more effectively solve everyday problems and make life easier. Many educators become aware that students ‘ emotional intelligence should be incorporated into and enrolled in the classroom in the learning environment. When learning style and emotional intelligence are addressed, it increases the academic achievement of learners.

Emotional Intelligence refers to the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationships (Goleman cited in Parviz, 2012) There are two types of models of emotional intelligence. They are the ability model and the mixed model. The ability model of emotional intelligence involves the ability to reason with and about emotions, and the capacity of emotions to enhance thought. This model is a set of mental abilities that are part of, and contribute to logical  thought. The mixed model of emotional intelligence involves mixing the qualities of emotional intelligence with other personality traits unrelated to emotions or intelligence. The mixture of abilities, personality traits, and dispositions are synonymous with this trait.

Learning styles and emotional intelligence have been studied frequently as separate research topics (Alavinia, 2012). However, there is a lack of research involving both learning styles and emotional intelligence and the effects on adult learners. Emotional intelligence is a relatively new intelligence construct. The limited number of studies in these areas indicates the need for further research in understanding the correlation and relationship of learning styles and emotional intelligence.

This study seeks to examine the relationship between learning styles and emotional intelligence among adult learners. This will help teachers and adult learners in Nigerian universities to better understand these findings and use these findings to enhance classroom learning. This examination of these two concepts can lead to a better understanding of the impact of learning styles and emotional intelligence in adult learners. It can also help adult learners enhance their classroom skills. Understanding one’s learning styles can help the learner improve achievement in class (Honigsfeld & Dunn, 2006), but understanding how learning styles and emotional intelligence correlate together can open new doors to an adult’s learning skills.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews the literature on the relationship between learning styles and emotional intelligence of educational management students in Nigerian universities. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses a descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of all Educational Management students at the Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ogun State. A questionnaire will be used as the instrument for data collection. A relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.


Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.


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EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON WOMEN’S FINANCIAL STATUS, EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING AND SELF-ESTEEM

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Divorce is a phenomenon that affects the emotional, physical and social wellbeing of the divorcees and those close to them. Most people do not enter into marriage with the intention of getting divorced. But divorce in a rapidly changing, industrialising Nigeria is fast becoming a common event, something that many will experience, or have already experienced.  In Nigeria, the divorce rate according to Alice (2012 citing the Almanac Book of Facts), was over 12,000 every year since 1975. Although, tatistical records of marital instability are not compiled in Nigeria as yet. But Newspaper often report cases of marital disruption on weekly basis in Lagos and its environs. In Kwara State, the Ministry of Information and Culture recorded that 1,697 Marriages were registered for both the Churches and Marriage Registry from 1984-1988. During the same period (1984-88) there were 12,104 divorces (Court Case File, Child Welfare Centre and Oja-oba Area Courts, Ilorin). According to these records, the rate of divorces over marriages is at 71% approximately 7 divorces to every marriage (7:1). This shows that in Nigeria, a lot of couples did not go through the court, church or mosque to conduct their wedding but approach the court for dissolution of marriages.

Women experiencing divorce often find themselves in a situation that is not shared by friends and family.  The problems they experience are different to those experienced by other members of their community, and consequently  they may feel isolated from the community.

Demographers predict that more than 45% of first-time marriages in the 21st  century will eventually end in divorce (Amato, 2010; Cherlin, 2010; Clarke-Stewart & Brentano, 2006). Research is plentiful on the topic of divorce, particularly as they affect children of the divorcees. However, there are limited data and scholarly works on the impact of divorce on women in Nigeria. It is on this basis that this study addresses the impact of divorce on women with specific reference to financial status, emotional well being, and self-esteem.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and contextualizes divorce within the theoretical framework of divorce-stress-adjustment perspective. The study discussed the relationship between first, divorce and women financial status; divorce and emotional well being; and divorce and self-esteem.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population involves divorced women in Nigeria. The sample consists of forty (40) women randomly selected from the five local government areas of Ogun State. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Chi-square analysis will be used to analyze the data collected.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.