IMPACT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOLS

IMPACT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOLS

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Chapter One: Introduction

Adolescent pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 18th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult. The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school.  The major problem with adolescent pregnancy and relating to this study is that many girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities. Although, studies have shown that delaying adolescent births could significantly lower population growth rates, potentially generating broad economic and social benefits, in addition to improving the health of adolescents; scholars are yet to directly link pregnancy on early and later adolescents as a factor which affects students’ performance in schools.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of pregnancy on early and later adolescents on students’ performance in schools and its implications for guidance. This chapter outlines the review of literature. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. The sub-headings are: theoretical framework, Teenage pregnancy and school attendance, teenage pregnancy and emotional behaviour, and teenage pregnancy and school performance. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of all secondary school teenagers in Ijebu-Ife metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The sample for this study constituted three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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Effect of Divorce on Children’s Conflict Behaviour

One in every three marriages conducted in Nigeria fail within the first three years (Al Jazeera, 2012). Thus, by the time students in Nigeria reach the age of eighteen, 50-60% of them will be affected by divorce (Adegoke, 2010).  Given the large number of children affected by divorce, research has focused on why and how divorce affects children’s adjustment (Potter, 2010; Sun & Li, 2011). Research consistently shows a negative relationship between parental divorce and children’s well-being. For example, children from divorced families have been found to have higher rates of depression (Strohschein, 2005) and antisocial behaviors (Vandewater & Lansford, 1998). Studies have found parental divorce to have a significant negative effect on children’s educational success, such as academic achievement and attainment (Amato, 2001; Frisco et al., 2007; Lansford, 2009;).

Among children of divorce, relatively few studies have examined effect of divorce on children’s conflict behaviour.According to Quinlan (2003), it is difficult for a child to realize that two people who love themselves do not love each other again. Most children could not comprehend the complexity of strains that led to the rapture of marital love. Fraser (2003) contends that performance and behaviour of children living with a single parent is below that of children living with the two parents. He observed that children who lives with a parent especially a divorced one, usually feels unsecured, always attention seeking and anxious that his/her education may be seriously hindered or disrupted through these feelings and at the end it would affect the child’s total behaviour. It has been statistically proven that children in single parents home fare worse than those with two parents (States News Service, 2005).

It has been established that family structure contributes to five characteristics of a child’s well being. These include lower birth rates and higher death rates among infants when there is just one parent.Compared to children who grew up in continuously intact families, offspring from divorced parents are often found to have lower psychological well-being (Ferner, 2002) have more emotional problems such as depression (Evbodaghe, 2002) have more negative self-image perform less well at school exhibit more delinquent and aggressive behaviour have a higher risk for substance use and they also have more problematic relationships and early sexual intercourse (Fraser, 2003).Previous research has shown parental divorce to be negatively associated with academic achievement.

However, most of this research has been focused on the educational outcomes of children and adolescents as opposed to young adults. This has created a vacuum in understanding the link between divorce and children anti-social behaviour. To fill this gap,  the current study investigates whether and how parental divorce affects children’s conflict behaviour in a school setting.

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EFFECTS OF THE AMNESTY PROGRAMME ON NIGER DELTA MILITANTS, 2009 TO 2015

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

            Thousands of militants, grouped under different names such as The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), the Ijaw Youth Council (lYC) and Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), and recently Niger Delta Avengers, etc, have over the years carried out multiple attacks on strategic oil and gas installations in the Niger Delta region. Niger Delta transverses nine of the thirty six states of Nigeria, namely: Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo, and Rivers (Obi, 2005). Most of the oil exploration so far had been at the core Niger Delta states of Beyelsa, Delta and Rivers. These three states had witnessed the major crises in the region. However, on 26 June 2009, the Federal Government of Nigeria announced that it would grant an amnesty and unconditional pardon to militants in the Niger Delta. A 60-day period was allowed for armed youths to surrender their weapons in return for training and rehabilitation by the government. The Amnesty officially resulted in the demobilisation of 30,000 militants, paying them allowances and providing training for a smaller number. It has markedly reduced conflict in the region.

Patterns of militant attacks on oil installations, hostage taking and direct confrontations with Nigerian security agencies have drawn both local and international attention to their deplorable situation through their restiveness. The Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF), founded by Alhaji Mujahid Asari-Dokubo, and the Niger Delta Vigilante (NDV), created by Ateke Tom, led more than 100 other smaller armed groups to violently engage the Federal Government and multinational oil companies in a ‘war of attrition’(Ojakorotu & Olawale, 2009). Asari’s NDPVF launched a series of attacks on oil wells and installations, disrupting oil production. The militant groups also attempted to control oil resources through oil bunkering, an exercise that involves tapping pipelines. All of these have had damaging effects on oil production in the region and eventually led to shutting down of the Warri refineries several times (Akpabio & Akpan, 2010).

When Late Musa YarAdua assumed office as the nation’s president, he came up with his own idea of developing the Niger Delta, which he tagged “Niger Delta Development Plan”. He also set up the Ministry of Niger delta Affairs. Again, on 25 June 2009 he granted amnesty to the “militants” via Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) to turn in their weapons within sixty (60) days (Aaron, 2010). In addition, they militants were to renounce violence through the execution of renunciation of militancy form. The repentant militants were to be paid the sum of N65, 000 (about $430) per month for 42 months that the rehabilitation programme would cover. This is addition to daily feeding allowance of N1500 (about $10). Beyond disarmament, repentant militants are to undergo some form of skills acquisition to enable them live economically productive lives (Aaron, 2010).

Furthermore, the leaders of the militants, including Ekpemupolo (Tompolo), Henry Okah, Asari Dokubo, Fara Dagogo, Ebi Ben, Ateke Tom, Saboma Jackrich (alias Egberipapa), gave up their weapons. Tompolo and his group gave “117 assorted rifles, 5,467 rounds of live ammunitions, 20 camouflage bullet jacket, 26 camouflage uniform and two helmets. By official account, about 26,356 militants surrendered their arms at various disarmament centres. On the whole the total of 26,760 guns of different types 287,445 rounds of ammunition, 18 gun boats and 1090 dynamites were surrendered” (Omadjohwoefe, 2011:254).

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Conflict in oil rich regions is inevitable and pervasive in all kinds of human interactions at the national and local levels. How it is managed (and mismanaged) has strong effects on national security and development. This chapter examines theories of conflict management and review of relevant literature on conflict management, amnesty programme and scholarly assessment of the amnesty programme from conflict management approach.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were also made in chapter five.

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IMPACT OF PARENTAL CONTROL AND PARENT-ADOLESCENT RELATIONSHIP ON CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AMONG ADOLESCENTS

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Adolescence is a transitional period of development from childhood to adulthood with evident biological and emotional changes. These changes bring transformation and reorganization in family relationships (Schroeder, Bulanda, Giordana, & Cernkovich, 2010). Moreover, adolescents start viewing themselves as adults and, on the contrary, parents may find it difficult to adapt to this perception. There may also be a shift in the unilateral authority enjoyed by the parents towards a mutual authority in which adolescents share decision-making power and increasing amounts of personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, interactions between the adolescent and parents can lead to conflict. Among adolescents, early adolescence (ages 10-15) has been associated with higher levels of conflict with parents, and adolescent-parent relationships may be transformed dramatically during this period.Criminal behaviors, including physical aggression and delinquency, are public health concerns because they may result in physical injury and/or involvement with the juvenile justice system including arrests and incarcerations (Odgers et al., 2008). Such

Criminal behaviors, including physical aggression and delinquency, are public health concerns because they may result in physical injury and/or involvement with the juvenile justice system including arrests and incarcerations (Odgers et al., 2008). Such behaviours exhibited at school may lead to suspension or expulsion, which take students out of the classroom, and thus decrease their academic instructional time and potential acquisition of skills (Zimmerman, Schutte, Taskinen, & Koller, 2013). Peer-based aggression and delinquency may also result in more sustained involvement with peer groups who support and engage in these criminal behaviors. However, prevalence rates of physical aggression and delinquency, unfortunately, increase during adolescence (Steinberg, 2008).

The consequences of this malady and other juvenile crimes such as examination malpractice, alcoholism, forgery, rape, armed robbery, and other numerous social ills have posed as a threat to community peace. In this study, parent-adolescent relationships are being explored from the perspective of adolescence. The present study explored parent-adolescent attachment; adolescent views towards parental guidance; adolescent perception about parental control; adolescent views of parental pressure; and the type of communication between the adolescent and the parent from a relationship perspective. Additionally, the study investigated differences between adolescents who had been involved in delinquent behavior and those who had not.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Chapter two focuses on the literature review, and explored the extent to which parent-child relationship could predict criminal behaviours among adolescents. Specific reference are made to the following: (1) family structure as producing agents of juvenile delinquency;(2) the relationship between family background and adolescent criminal behaviour(3) Examine the reaction of adolescent boys who get involved in delinquent behaviors towards parental control, guidance, and pressure when compared to adolescent boys who are not involved in delinquent behaviors

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were also made in chapter five

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