IMPACT OF THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
Teaching is a task that involves both the teacher and the learner. The teacher and the learner have much to gain from each other. For teaching to be effective the teacher requires both audio and visual aids that would enable his activity be more effective and realistic. This is why instructional materials become very relevant to the teacher and to the task of teaching in secondary schools.

The main difficulty for the successful implementation of instructional materials is not a shortage of hardware, but rather the fact that many Biology teachers are not ready to use technology in the classroom. In fact, many teachers feel that teaching and learning do not necessarily need to be accompanied by the use of instructional materials Azikiwe (1998), Williams (1990) and Kolo (2006) have noted the above mentioned observation. Teaching and learning therefore appears very abstract and difficult for the learners as they use their audio sense only. It has been observed that teachers find it a herculean task to accompany their lessons with relevant instructional media such as audio aids, visual aids and audio-visual aids.

This is perhaps due to laziness, or lack of resourcefulness or lack of innovativeness or gross incompetence of the teachers. Whichever is the case, this lack of proper use of instructional media constitutes a great deal of problem for effective teaching and learning of the subject. Unfortunately, few studies have been carried out on the teacher’s use of instructional materials in Biology and secondary school students’ academic performance.

Chapter Two: Literature Review
This chapter focuses on the literature review; the importance of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Biology; the problems faced by Biology teachers in using instructional materials effectively; the attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials in Biology

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the impact of the use of instructional materials on the academic performance of students in Biology using Lagos State as case study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Simple percentage was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were made in chapter five.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Instructional Material as a Concept
2.3 The Functions of Instructional Materials
2.4 Classification of Instructional Materials
2.5 The Problems Faced By Biology Teachers in Using Instructional Materials
2.6 The Attitude of Teachers towards the Use of Instructional Materials in Biology
2.7 Impact of the Use of Instructional Materials Students’ Performance
2.8 Appraisal of Literature

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations

Impact Of The Use Of Instructional Materials On The Academic Performance Of Students In Biology

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INFLUENCE OF METACOGNITION, SELF-EFFICACY AND LEARNING STRATEGIES ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
This study investigates the ariables of metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies as they affect the academic achievement of secondary school students in Biology (Adewole, 2001). . The research derives its motivation from the behavioural theories which posit that every young child develop a sense of self from their perceptions of important people in their surroundings, including relatives, teachers, and peers. Thus, metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies affect the process by which children learn (Bornstein, 2002). It is on this basis that the factors metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies are examined in the light of linking them with the adolescent worldview, bevahiour as well as performance.

In the Biology classroom, students are called upon to reflect on concrete examples and associate these with abstract theories. Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them (Flaell as cited in Dantonio and Beisenherz, 2001). Quite simply, metacognition is thinking about thinking. Any process in which students examine the Method that they are using to retrieve, develop or expand information is deemed to be metacognitive in nature. Therefore, questions generated by the teacher would be considered metacognitive in nature if the questions invoke the process used to arrive at a response rather than soliciting a correct answer based on the student’s memory of the material.

Research on metacognition and academic performance or achievement of children with learning problems seems to indicate that this is a relatively new field. The study During adolescence, the amount of influence that the variables of metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies have on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Biology cannot be overemphasized. The ways and manners by which metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies affects adolescents academic performance needs to be researched and documented. This will assist parents and counselors to understand the patterns and ways to curb negative influence.

While scholars have identified the correlation between learning strategy and self efficacy on students’ academic performance in the primary school, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their academics. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies influence on adolescents academic performance to school.

Chapter Two: Literature Review                                                                                           Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies influence on adolescents academic performance to school.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies of students using Lagos State as case study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations linking the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies of students were made.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Metacognition and Academic Achievement
2.3 Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement
2.4 Learning Strategies and Academic Achievement

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

INFLUENCE OF METACOGNITION, SELF-EFFICACY AND LEARNING STRATEGIES ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

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NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOL

 

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Nutrition is an important factor affecting growth, health and all round development of individuals, mostly children. According to UNICEF in 2005 (WBI, GAIN, IMD, 2006), malnutrition caused approximately 50% of child death worldwide, making the UN’s Millennium development goal to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015 particularly ambitious (Jukes  et al., 2000). Proper nutrition is critical to maximizing brain function and enhancing learning. Helping children develop healthful habits from a young age will aid them in reaching their optimal potential.

Malnutrition has been defined as the cellular imbalance between supply of nutrients and energy and the body’s demand for them to ensure growth maintenance and specific functions. It is simply refers to as a medical conditions caused by an improper or insufficient diet (Ebuehi, 2012). According to Sawaba (2006) malnutrition occurs when hunger goes on in such intensity and for such a long time period of time that they start to interfere in the body’s energy supply. Serious malnutrition can cause neurological impairment which can cause physical and mental deficiencies that could jeopardize learning.

The studies of the influence of malnutrition on academic ability indicate that chronic under nutrition is associated with lower achievement levels among primary school students. (Grantham-McGregorand Ani, 2001). Good health and nutrition are needed to achieve one’s full educational potential because nutrition affects intellectual development and learning ability (UN/ACC/SCN, 1990; Ernesto, 1990). Multiple studies report significant findings between the nutritional status and cognitive test scores or school performance. Studies have consistently shown that, students’ with more adequate diets score higher on tests of factual knowledge than those with less adequate nutrition (Levinger, 1996; WHO,1996; Pollitt, 1990). Studies have found that severe stunting in the first two years of life is strongly associated with lower test scores in school-age children.  Also, nutritional anaemia, particularly deficiencies of iron, iodine and vitamin A are major problems for students in low income countries. It has been shown that such deficiencies can negatively impact on growth, increase susceptibility  to infection  and also impair the mental development and learning ability of school children (Pollitt, 1990).

The education of millions of children throughout the World is being held back by malnutrition (UN/ACC/SCN, 1990).Malnutrition in students can affect school aptitudes, time of school enrolment, concentration and attentiveness (Levinger, 1996). Students with a history of severe malnutrition perform less well on tests of IQ and specific factual knowledge than children in matched comparison groups (Pollitt, 1990). Malnutrition also impairs the ability to concentrate, learn and attend school regularly (UN/ACC/SCN, 1990). A child who is malnourished and subsequently suffering from poor health cannot adequately take advantage of instructional and learning materials (Levinger, 1996).

One of the major causes of malnutrition is poverty. Children living in poverty are often subject to such health and safety issues as malnutrition, environmental hazards and insufficient health care. Health and achievement overlap, every cell in the body needs a healthy environment to function optimally. When body cells are besieged daily by stressors, they slow their growth trajectory and contract. Student’s raised in poor homes have more cells in their body “under siege” than do children from middle or upper income families. The consequent adaptations that these children immune systems make diminish their ability to concentrate, learn and behave appropriately.

Substandard housing in poverty neighbourhood  leaves children exposed to everything from greater pedestrian risks to environmental hazards (Evans, 2004). Poor housing quality may cause respiratory morbidity and childhood injuries  and may elevate psychological distress in children (Evans, Wells & Moch, 2003). Poor children are more likely to live in old and inadequately maintained housing and to be exposed to lead in peeling paints, a factor associated with decreased 1Q (Schwartz, 1994).

Children from low-income families have generally poorer physical health than do their more affluent peers. In particular, there is a higher incidence of such conditions as asthma, respiratory infections, tuberculosis infections and hearing loss and obesity (Simves, 2003, Wang & Zhang, 2006).

All of these consequences of malnutrition compromise student’s attendance and performance at school. This study therefore examines the effective of malnutrition on students’ academic performance, to provide possible solutions to problems facing students and make recommendations.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and discusses nutritional deficiency and performance of children in school.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the nutritional deficiency and performance of children in primary school using Obudu, Cross River State as case study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis was adopted for demographic data. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the research question at 0.05 level of significance

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking positive study habit to enhanced performance of adult learners will be made in the final chapter.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Study

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Question

1.5       Research Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0       Introduction

2.1        Nutrient Value and Importance

2.2       Conceptualizing Nutritional Deficiency

2.3       Causes of Nutritional Deficiency

2.4       Influence of Nutritional Deficiency on Academic Performance

2.5       Appraisal of Literature

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Population of the Study

3.3       Sample and Sampling Procedure

3.4       Instrument of Data Collection

3.5       Procedure of Administration

3.6       Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS

4.1       Introduction

4.2       Analysis of Research Hypotheses

4.3       Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation


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EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ADULT LEARNERS IN NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
Nigeria has a legislation framework for adult education and training as adults have a constitutional right to basic adult education. However, this right does not appear to be translated into adequate action to cater for adult learners. One of the educational challenges of the 21st century is the need for an educational system that facilitates a process of life-long and self-directed study habit among adult learners. The overarching goal of the education policy is to enable all individuals to value, have access to, and succeed in life-long education and training of good quality.

 The extent of adult student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period which learning has been done. It is believed that grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades, it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out as predicting grades. It has been an interplay of so many factors such as gender, intelligence quotient, study habits, age, year level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth order, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are a variable of academic performance among adult learners.
 

Research on the correlation between study habit, gender, school location and academic achievement of adult learners in adult class has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the adult learners. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2001) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and study habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

However, studies of school achievement indicate that most adult learners are under achievers. (Dizney, 2003, Okegbile, 20070 and Adetunji and Oladeji, 2007). A major reason for adult learners’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2004) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that adult learners, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing study materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of adult learners to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of adult learners studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

Although, studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on adult learners’ academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.
The primary aim of this study is to provide a survey study habits of adult learners in adult class as well as the relationship between gender and study habit; school location and study habit and how each of these variables affect the study habit on adult learners’ in adult class. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:
1. Assess the study habit of adult learners in adult class;
2. Compare the academic performance of male and female adult learners who have developed a study habit and those who do not have study habit;
3. Examine the relationship between school location and study habit among adult learners in adult class; and
4. Investigate the effect of study habit on student’s academic performance in adult class

Chapter Two: Literature Review
Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and contextualizes study habit among adult learners.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the influence of study habit on the academic performance adult learners in National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos State. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis was adopted for demographic data. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the research question at 0.05 level of significance

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings, and data analysis. Recommendations on linking positive study habit to enhanced performance of adult learners will be made in the final chapter.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.1 Concept of Study Habit
2.2 Concept of Academic Performance
2.3. Relationship Between Gender and Study Habit
2.4. Relationship Between School Location and Study Habit
2.5 Factors Affecting Study Habit Among Adult learners’
2.6 Effect of Study Habit on Academic performance of Adult learners’
2.7 Empirical Review

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

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EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ADULT LEARNERS IN NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA