EFFECTS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY ON GIRLS’ EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

 Chapter One: Introduction

Teenage pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 20th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult. The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school.

The major problem with adolescent pregnancy and relating to this study is that many girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities. Although, studies have shown that delaying adolescent births could significantly lower population growth rates, potentially generating broad economic and social benefits, in addition to improving the health of adolescents; scholars are yet to directly link pregnancy on early and later adolescents as a factor which affects students’ performance in schools.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the effects of teenage pregnancy on girls’ emotional behaviour and academic performance. This chapter outlines the review of literature. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. The sub-headings are: theoretical framework, Teenage pregnancy and school attendance, teenage pregnancy and emotional behaviour, and teenage pregnancy and school performance. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of all secondary school teenagers in Ijebu-Ife metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The sample for this study constituted three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking adult education to national development will be made in the final chapter.

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IMPACT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOLS

IMPACT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOLS

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Chapter One: Introduction

Adolescent pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 18th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult. The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school.  The major problem with adolescent pregnancy and relating to this study is that many girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities. Although, studies have shown that delaying adolescent births could significantly lower population growth rates, potentially generating broad economic and social benefits, in addition to improving the health of adolescents; scholars are yet to directly link pregnancy on early and later adolescents as a factor which affects students’ performance in schools.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of pregnancy on early and later adolescents on students’ performance in schools and its implications for guidance. This chapter outlines the review of literature. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. The sub-headings are: theoretical framework, Teenage pregnancy and school attendance, teenage pregnancy and emotional behaviour, and teenage pregnancy and school performance. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of all secondary school teenagers in Ijebu-Ife metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The sample for this study constituted three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ADULT LEARNERS IN NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
Nigeria has a legislation framework for adult education and training as adults have a constitutional right to basic adult education. However, this right does not appear to be translated into adequate action to cater for adult learners. One of the educational challenges of the 21st century is the need for an educational system that facilitates a process of life-long and self-directed study habit among adult learners. The overarching goal of the education policy is to enable all individuals to value, have access to, and succeed in life-long education and training of good quality.

 The extent of adult student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period which learning has been done. It is believed that grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades, it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out as predicting grades. It has been an interplay of so many factors such as gender, intelligence quotient, study habits, age, year level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth order, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are a variable of academic performance among adult learners.
 

Research on the correlation between study habit, gender, school location and academic achievement of adult learners in adult class has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the adult learners. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2001) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and study habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

However, studies of school achievement indicate that most adult learners are under achievers. (Dizney, 2003, Okegbile, 20070 and Adetunji and Oladeji, 2007). A major reason for adult learners’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2004) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that adult learners, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing study materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of adult learners to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of adult learners studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

Although, studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on adult learners’ academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.
The primary aim of this study is to provide a survey study habits of adult learners in adult class as well as the relationship between gender and study habit; school location and study habit and how each of these variables affect the study habit on adult learners’ in adult class. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:
1. Assess the study habit of adult learners in adult class;
2. Compare the academic performance of male and female adult learners who have developed a study habit and those who do not have study habit;
3. Examine the relationship between school location and study habit among adult learners in adult class; and
4. Investigate the effect of study habit on student’s academic performance in adult class

Chapter Two: Literature Review
Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and contextualizes study habit among adult learners.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the influence of study habit on the academic performance adult learners in National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos State. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis was adopted for demographic data. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the research question at 0.05 level of significance

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings, and data analysis. Recommendations on linking positive study habit to enhanced performance of adult learners will be made in the final chapter.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.1 Concept of Study Habit
2.2 Concept of Academic Performance
2.3. Relationship Between Gender and Study Habit
2.4. Relationship Between School Location and Study Habit
2.5 Factors Affecting Study Habit Among Adult learners’
2.6 Effect of Study Habit on Academic performance of Adult learners’
2.7 Empirical Review

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

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EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ADULT LEARNERS IN NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA

IMPACT OF SCHOOL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT ON LEARNING OUTCOME OF STUDENTS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS

1.1       Background to the Study

The sustainability of schools relies in part on the availability and utilization of funds available to support recurrent costs for systems upkeep at the school level. Studies (Bada and Oguguo, 2011) shows that heads of schools report shortages of funds which impact on the daily running of school programmes. Almost all institutions and organizations in Nigeria have been affected by recessions (Bada and Oguguo, 2011). During economic downturns, the world seems to focus on managing budgets. Since 2008 the federal government has taken dramatic measures to help the financial state of many institutions struggling with the current recession. Of those measures, massive bailout packages worth billions of dollars have been proposed and passed to help institutions across the nation.

Schools have not been excluded from these tough financial times. Educational institutions historically struggle to get funding, but the recent recession has made revenue building particularly difficult. From state and local governments to the school community, financial support for public schools has decreased dramatically. As a result schools have had to adjust by making cuts in all areas including personnel, supplies, building structures, and programs,  (Ijeoma, 2007).

Primary education serves as the foundation in the formal process of ensuring changes in the behaviour of the growing members of the society. The success of any subsequent level depends, to a great extent on the effectiveness of the foundation. Hence, the primary formal education occupies a natural prime of place in any nation’s educational system. In light of this, Mallison (1980) described primary education as the keystone of the whole educational structure. As a foundation, it invariably determines what the outlook of subsequent higher levels of formal education will be.

          Primary education deals with young children coming fresh from their homes without any exposure at all to the outside world. This level exposes the child to become an integral part of the society. It exposes the child to adapt to situations out of the home environment. He/she begins to associate with peer groups out of the family setting.

          The objectives of the primary education in Nigeria as spelt out in the National Policy on Education (2004, revised) states:

  1. The inculcation of permanent literacy and numeracy and ability to communicate effectively;
  2. The laying of a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking;
  3. Citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society;
  4. Character and moral training and the development of sound attitudes;
  5. Giving the child apportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable him to function effectively in the society within the limits of his capacity;
  6. Developing in the child the ability to adapt to his changing environment;
  7. Providing basic tools for further educational advancement, including preparation for trades and crafts of the locality.

To this end, the government made primary education free and universal by launching the Universal Primary Education Scheme in September, 1976 and proposed to make it compulsory.

In Nigeria, there are four main sources of public funding for the public (non-federal) education sector: direct  allocations  from  the  federal  government  (through  the  Universal  Basic  Education  Intervention Fund and the Education Trust Fund), state governments, local governments, and private individuals and organizations, including nongovernmental organizations and international donors in some states. There is  a  huge  lack  of  information  on  state  and  local  expenditures  for  education,  which  makes  accurate estimates of total spending difficult.

In essence, funding for education in Nigeria come primarily from federal and local governments finance over the years; state governments have tended to prioritize tertiary education relying on local governments’ finance for primary education  (EFA Report, 2014). A general lack of accountability inherent in current practices leads to inefficiency in use of finance. Officials estimate that these challenges account for 40% – 45 % of allocated funds. Recurrent capital expenditure imbalances in budgetary allocations aggravate the challenges and stifle the provision of education infrastructure. The non-inclusion of performance conditions in the criteria for federal matching grants to state governments on basic education may lead to lack of incentives for performance and inefficiency. In Nigeria, parents, local communities and individuals assist in the funding and implementation of basic education programme. Parents deny themselves a lot of things to keep their children in schools. Local communities also often levied themselves to raise enough funds to provide facilities in both primary and secondary the schools like classroom blocks and dormitories. This is because education has been identified by all in the economy as a dynamic instrument of change, hence developed countries and those aspiring to develop have adopted it as an instrument per excellence for effecting national development (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).

To begin with, the word “finance” has many facets. In some uses of the word it means a source of supply, support or aid that can be readily drawn upon. At other times the word resource is used to refer to a capability or determination to persevere. In the context of classrooms, finance are seen as physical demonstration of aids, pupils contextual understandings, teacher subject expertise, and structured organization of materials, ideas, and activities. The points of contact at which students interact with these finance (noting that students themselves can be a resource) are where knowledge construction can occur.

The  federal  government  (FG)  makes  nationwide  policies  and  runs  primary, secondary  (both  junior  and  senior) and post-secondary institutions, including universities, polytechnics, and colleges. The FG funds these through  annual  budgetary  allocations  and  several  targeted  interventions  funds,  including  the  Tertiary Education  Trust  Fund  (TETFund),  debt  relief  grant  (DRG/MDGs),  and  constituency  projects  of  federal legislators.  These funds  also  benefit  state government  schools.  In  addition,  the FG funds the construction  of  several  Almajiri  (Tsangaya)  schools  and  participates in  nomadic education and  adult education  campaigns. The  FG’s  main  intervention  instrument  in  basic education  is  through  a  special Universal Basic Education (UBE) Fund, which makes matching grants to state governments. FG education spending averaged nearly $2 USD billion annually between 2010 and 2014, which amounts to  7.8% of aggregate  FG  spending or  0.5%  of  real  GDP (EFA Report, 2014).  Spending  started  above  this  $2 billion average and rose steadily each year, except in 2012, when it dipped sharply to less than $1.2 USD billion. The  sharp  fall  in  2012  was not  specific  to  the  education  sector;  all  government  functions  were affected  due to the  implementation of  the FG’s fiscal consolidation  regime  aimed to streamline spending and eliminate waste.  The reduction was reflected in education’s share of aggregate spending and GDP, which dipped significantly in 2012, but picked up thereafter.

State Governments (SG) use Local Governments’ (LG) finance to meet their counterpart obligations for accessing federal matching grants, pay primary school teachers, and pay other costs of basic schools or, at least, primary schools.  SGs’ base their stance on the Local Government Decree of 1976, which “assigned formal responsibility for providing and maintaining primary education to LGs, subject to necessary assistance from the states.”  However, the situation changed in the 1999 constitution, which “… envisages that, in the primary and secondary education sub-sectors, the Federal Government’s main role is to determine national policy, set standards (including curriculum) and monitor performance, while the States design, develop and deliver the services” (FMoE, Education Sector Status Report, May, 2003, p. 24).  The Supreme Court interpreted the constitutional provisions as follows, “In so far as primary education is concerned, a local government council only participates with the State Government in its provision and maintenance. The function obviously remains with the State Government”. News reports suggest that the 19 northern SGs’ agreed in a Y2000 education summit with then VP of the country to devote at least, 25% of their budget to education in order to bridge the education gap with southern states, but they failed to honor that agreement (FMoE, 2013)

The role of local governments (LGs) in education is “participation in…the provision and maintenance of primary,  adult,  and  vocational  education.”31  A  2002  Supreme  Court  decision  interpreted  this  to  mean that primary education is a state responsibility in which local governments may participate.  In practice, states  use  federal  allocations  to  local  governments  to  pay  for  primary  school  teachers’  salaries,  and use  local  government  funds  to  pay  their  counterpart  contributions  to  UBEC  grants.    In  addition,  local governments  contribute  to  the  funding  of  state  universities,  especially  in  the  northern  states.  Consequently,  LGs  make  a  huge  contribution  to  education  financing  in  Nigeria,  but  it  is  difficult  to determine the level due to non-publication of LGs’ financial statements

It is imperative for individual schools to begin analyzing the most efficient methods of allocating finance, paying close attention to student and program assessments, working with diverse student populations, and the intentional use of effective learning and instructional strategies.  “More money is needed to achieve equivalent outcomes with high need students…while this complicates analyses of funding and finance, there is no logic under which it provides a justification for spending less on the education of children in poverty.” (Darling-Hammond, 2010)  However, evidence continues to show that the proper allocation of finance has the potential to improve student achievement, even in areas where students have historically underachieved (Odden & Archibald, 2009).  This study will analyze resource allocation strategies in primary schools in Benue State with scarce finance that have consistently contributed to the achievement gap, yet have the potential to outperform schools that have similar demographics and pupils populations.

  • 2 Statement of the Problem

Educational leaders have long sought to understand how to allocate finance to improve school and pupils’ learning outcome. Schools receive funding for the sole purpose of improving educational opportunities and achievement for students. Yet the benefits of increasing that finance are widely disputed. Research conducted outside Nigeria indicates that the level of finance in a school does make a difference in student achievement (Odden, Goertz, & Goertz, 2008).  However, limited research exists in Nigeria on whether increases in funding, utilized effectively and efficiently, does increase student achievement. Financing is often challenging to study because of the lack of disaggregation of district and school level expenditures. Educational boards have not historically kept track of categories of expenditures and are unable to aide researchers in their quest for financial data separated by theme.

Many issues amplify the importance of effective financing and management because of the implications on school funding for primary schools. Funding  for  basic  education  has  come  primarily  from  federal  and  local governments finance over the years; state governments have tended to prioritize tertiary education relying on local governments’ finance for primary education. A general lack of accountability inherent in current  practices  leads  to  inefficiency  in  use  of  finance.  Officials  estimate  that  these  challenges account  for  40%  –  45  %  of  allocated  funds.  Recurrent  capital  expenditure  imbalances  in  budgetary allocations  aggravate  the  challenges  and  stifle  the  provision  of  education  infrastructure. The  non-inclusion of performance conditions in the criteria for federal matching grants to state governments on basic education may lead to lack of incentives for performance and inefficiency.

Schools are under even greater pressure to do more with less and maintain a clear process to decide how to allocate finance in areas that are needed the most and are the most effective. An important concern then, is understanding the connection between resource utilization, data-directed decision-making, and monitoring the use of resource utilization in schools to improve student learning outcome.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The prime purpose of this study was to investigate how financing and school management impacts on learning outcome in primary public schools in Benue State. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following research objectives:

  1. Conceptualize school financial management as they impact on pupils learning outcome;
  2. Determine the extent to which school funding produce effects, feelings, thoughts, and motivations for learners in relation to their learning outcome;
  • Establish the link between government funding and level of learning outcome among students
  1. Find out if school financial management, with special focus on budgeting have direct consequences on learning outcome of students

1.4   Research Questions

The study seeks to answer the following questions

  1. How relevant is the proposed three-model variables of resource allocation, government funding, and school financial management to learning outcome?
  2. To what extent would resource allocation produce effects, feelings, thoughts, and motivations for learners in relation to their learning outcome?
  • Is there any link between government funding and level of learning outcome among pupils?
  1. Would school financial management, with special focus on budgeting have direct consequences on learning outcome of pupils?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

Four null hypotheses were raised in the study.

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of school financial management and pupils learning outcome

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean rating of head teacher and account supervisors on the extent to which school finance would impact on learning outcome of pupils

  • There is no significant difference between the  mean rating  of school management team on the extent to which budget implementation would impact on learning outcome of pupils

  1. There  is  no  significant  difference  between  the  mean  ratings  of  male  and  female  school managers  in  school financial management as they impact on learning outcome of pupils

1.6       Scope of the Study

The study will be based on Benue State of Nigeria. The target population for this study will be the school management team (SMT) bracket of head teachers, Heads of Departments and others considered essential to the study. However, while the title suggests a state-wide study, it is limited to some selected schools in four local governments’ areas of Benue State.

1.4       Significance of the Study

Due to the emphasis on high standards and fiscal accountability, there is a need to inform the research linking student learning outcome to the allocation or reallocation of finance. Schools and leadership teams need current, reliable research and guidance to make fiscally sound decisions so that students can experience the best education possible. There is a need for studying how primary schools spend their funding, and whether there is a significant correlation to student achievement. Findings could aid schools in deciding which programs should stay, be expanded, be reduced, or cut.

Since there is a paucity of empirical studies of this kind in Nigeria,  it is believed that  the  findings  and  implications  of  this  study  will  be  of  a  great  importance  for  the Federal, State and Local governments in terms of assessing their funding of education over the years. Thus, the result of the study could be useful for the education planners to critically review and update funding policy in the area of methodology and content.  The findings of this study will also be relevant to the teachers by providing them with information on funding and finance available which can be improved upon to ensure better performance of learners in school. The study will also provide adequate information for teachers as well as counselors of students on some funding from the government can affect their academic performance.

1.7  Operational Definition of Terms

Finance: Finance is a field that deals with the study of investments. It includes the dynamics of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk. Finance can also be defined as the science of money management. A key point in finance is the time value of money, which states that purchasing power of one unit of currency, can vary over time.

 

Management: Management is also an academic discipline, a social science whose objective is to study social organization.

Primary School: A primary school or elementary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the ages of about five to eleven, coming before secondary school and after preschool.

Resource Allocation: Resource allocation is the assignment of available resources to various uses. In the context of an entire economy, resources can be allocated by various means, such as markets or central planning.

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IMPACT OF SCHOOL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT ON LEARNING OUTCOME OF STUDENTS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS