THE EFFECTS OF STUDY HABIT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGUN STATE



Chapter One: Introduction

Research on the correlation between study habit and students academic achievement has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the national Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the students. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2019) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and study habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

               However, studies of school achievement indicate that most students are under achievers (Okegbile, 2017). A major reason for students’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2018) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that students, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing study materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

               Study habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work privately. Azikiwe (2017) describes the study habit as “the adopted way and manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain mastery of the subject”. According to her, “good study habits are good assets to learners because they (habits) assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization and consequent excellent performance, while opposite constitute constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure”.

               Good (2018) define the term study habits as: The student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc”. Going by this definition it literally means that good study habit produces positive academic performance while inefficient study habit leads to academic failure.

               In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

               According to Hussain (2016) secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor has caused serious damage to the achievement status to secondary school students.

               Achievement is generally a pedagogical terminology used while determining learners’ success in formal education and which is measured through reports examinations, researches, and ratings with numerous factors of variables exerting influence. Essentially, the National Policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) has identified school achievement contents according to school subjects which are classified as core or elective subjects.

               Although studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on students academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the effect of study habit on students’ academic performance. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of some selected secondary schools in Ijebu Ode Local Government area of Ogun State as case study. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.3 Empirical Review
2.4 Appraisal of Literature

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Answers to Research Hypotheses
4.2 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation


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EFFECTS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY ON GIRLS’ EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

 Chapter One: Introduction

Teenage pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 20th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult. The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school.

The major problem with adolescent pregnancy and relating to this study is that many girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities. Although, studies have shown that delaying adolescent births could significantly lower population growth rates, potentially generating broad economic and social benefits, in addition to improving the health of adolescents; scholars are yet to directly link pregnancy on early and later adolescents as a factor which affects students’ performance in schools.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the effects of teenage pregnancy on girls’ emotional behaviour and academic performance. This chapter outlines the review of literature. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. The sub-headings are: theoretical framework, Teenage pregnancy and school attendance, teenage pregnancy and emotional behaviour, and teenage pregnancy and school performance. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of all secondary school teenagers in Ijebu-Ife metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The sample for this study constituted three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking adult education to national development will be made in the final chapter.

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PREGNANCY

 

 

IMPACT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOLS

IMPACT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOLS

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Chapter One: Introduction

Adolescent pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 18th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult. The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school.  The major problem with adolescent pregnancy and relating to this study is that many girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities. Although, studies have shown that delaying adolescent births could significantly lower population growth rates, potentially generating broad economic and social benefits, in addition to improving the health of adolescents; scholars are yet to directly link pregnancy on early and later adolescents as a factor which affects students’ performance in schools.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of pregnancy on early and later adolescents on students’ performance in schools and its implications for guidance. This chapter outlines the review of literature. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. The sub-headings are: theoretical framework, Teenage pregnancy and school attendance, teenage pregnancy and emotional behaviour, and teenage pregnancy and school performance. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of all secondary school teenagers in Ijebu-Ife metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The sample for this study constituted three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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Call for account details
08077447220, 08074472654, 08139075935

OR

Pay online HERE

Transfer from your mobile phone to any of our bank accounts.

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EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ADULT LEARNERS IN NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
Nigeria has a legislation framework for adult education and training as adults have a constitutional right to basic adult education. However, this right does not appear to be translated into adequate action to cater for adult learners. One of the educational challenges of the 21st century is the need for an educational system that facilitates a process of life-long and self-directed study habit among adult learners. The overarching goal of the education policy is to enable all individuals to value, have access to, and succeed in life-long education and training of good quality.

 The extent of adult student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period which learning has been done. It is believed that grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades, it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out as predicting grades. It has been an interplay of so many factors such as gender, intelligence quotient, study habits, age, year level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth order, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are a variable of academic performance among adult learners.
 

Research on the correlation between study habit, gender, school location and academic achievement of adult learners in adult class has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the adult learners. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2001) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and study habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

However, studies of school achievement indicate that most adult learners are under achievers. (Dizney, 2003, Okegbile, 20070 and Adetunji and Oladeji, 2007). A major reason for adult learners’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2004) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that adult learners, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing study materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of adult learners to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of adult learners studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

Although, studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on adult learners’ academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.
The primary aim of this study is to provide a survey study habits of adult learners in adult class as well as the relationship between gender and study habit; school location and study habit and how each of these variables affect the study habit on adult learners’ in adult class. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:
1. Assess the study habit of adult learners in adult class;
2. Compare the academic performance of male and female adult learners who have developed a study habit and those who do not have study habit;
3. Examine the relationship between school location and study habit among adult learners in adult class; and
4. Investigate the effect of study habit on student’s academic performance in adult class

Chapter Two: Literature Review
Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and contextualizes study habit among adult learners.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the influence of study habit on the academic performance adult learners in National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos State. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis was adopted for demographic data. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the research question at 0.05 level of significance

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings, and data analysis. Recommendations on linking positive study habit to enhanced performance of adult learners will be made in the final chapter.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.1 Concept of Study Habit
2.2 Concept of Academic Performance
2.3. Relationship Between Gender and Study Habit
2.4. Relationship Between School Location and Study Habit
2.5 Factors Affecting Study Habit Among Adult learners’
2.6 Effect of Study Habit on Academic performance of Adult learners’
2.7 Empirical Review

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

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EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ADULT LEARNERS IN NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA