Chapter One: Introduction

Adolescent pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 18th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult. The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school.  The major problem with adolescent pregnancy and relating to this study is that many girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities. Although, studies have shown that delaying adolescent births could significantly lower population growth rates, potentially generating broad economic and social benefits, in addition to improving the health of adolescents; scholars are yet to directly link pregnancy on early and later adolescents as a factor which affects students’ performance in schools.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of pregnancy on early and later adolescents on students’ performance in schools and its implications for guidance. This chapter outlines the review of literature. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. The sub-headings are: theoretical framework, Teenage pregnancy and school attendance, teenage pregnancy and emotional behaviour, and teenage pregnancy and school performance. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of all secondary school teenagers in Ijebu-Ife metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The sample for this study constituted three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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Chapter One: Introduction
Nigeria has a legislation framework for adult education and training as adults have a constitutional right to basic adult education. However, this right does not appear to be translated into adequate action to cater for adult learners. One of the educational challenges of the 21st century is the need for an educational system that facilitates a process of life-long and self-directed study habit among adult learners. The overarching goal of the education policy is to enable all individuals to value, have access to, and succeed in life-long education and training of good quality.

 The extent of adult student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period which learning has been done. It is believed that grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades, it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out as predicting grades. It has been an interplay of so many factors such as gender, intelligence quotient, study habits, age, year level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth order, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are a variable of academic performance among adult learners.

Research on the correlation between study habit, gender, school location and academic achievement of adult learners in adult class has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the adult learners. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2001) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and study habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

However, studies of school achievement indicate that most adult learners are under achievers. (Dizney, 2003, Okegbile, 20070 and Adetunji and Oladeji, 2007). A major reason for adult learners’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2004) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that adult learners, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing study materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of adult learners to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of adult learners studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

Although, studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on adult learners’ academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.
The primary aim of this study is to provide a survey study habits of adult learners in adult class as well as the relationship between gender and study habit; school location and study habit and how each of these variables affect the study habit on adult learners’ in adult class. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:
1. Assess the study habit of adult learners in adult class;
2. Compare the academic performance of male and female adult learners who have developed a study habit and those who do not have study habit;
3. Examine the relationship between school location and study habit among adult learners in adult class; and
4. Investigate the effect of study habit on student’s academic performance in adult class

Chapter Two: Literature Review
Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and contextualizes study habit among adult learners.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the influence of study habit on the academic performance adult learners in National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos State. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis was adopted for demographic data. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the research question at 0.05 level of significance

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings, and data analysis. Recommendations on linking positive study habit to enhanced performance of adult learners will be made in the final chapter.

1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

2.1 Introduction
2.1 Concept of Study Habit
2.2 Concept of Academic Performance
2.3. Relationship Between Gender and Study Habit
2.4. Relationship Between School Location and Study Habit
2.5 Factors Affecting Study Habit Among Adult learners’
2.6 Effect of Study Habit on Academic performance of Adult learners’
2.7 Empirical Review

3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation


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1.1       Background to the Study

The sustainability of schools relies in part on the availability and utilization of funds available to support recurrent costs for systems upkeep at the school level. Studies (Bada and Oguguo, 2011) shows that heads of schools report shortages of funds which impact on the daily running of school programmes. Almost all institutions and organizations in Nigeria have been affected by recessions (Bada and Oguguo, 2011). During economic downturns, the world seems to focus on managing budgets. Since 2008 the federal government has taken dramatic measures to help the financial state of many institutions struggling with the current recession. Of those measures, massive bailout packages worth billions of dollars have been proposed and passed to help institutions across the nation.

Schools have not been excluded from these tough financial times. Educational institutions historically struggle to get funding, but the recent recession has made revenue building particularly difficult. From state and local governments to the school community, financial support for public schools has decreased dramatically. As a result schools have had to adjust by making cuts in all areas including personnel, supplies, building structures, and programs,  (Ijeoma, 2007).

Primary education serves as the foundation in the formal process of ensuring changes in the behaviour of the growing members of the society. The success of any subsequent level depends, to a great extent on the effectiveness of the foundation. Hence, the primary formal education occupies a natural prime of place in any nation’s educational system. In light of this, Mallison (1980) described primary education as the keystone of the whole educational structure. As a foundation, it invariably determines what the outlook of subsequent higher levels of formal education will be.

          Primary education deals with young children coming fresh from their homes without any exposure at all to the outside world. This level exposes the child to become an integral part of the society. It exposes the child to adapt to situations out of the home environment. He/she begins to associate with peer groups out of the family setting.

          The objectives of the primary education in Nigeria as spelt out in the National Policy on Education (2004, revised) states:

  1. The inculcation of permanent literacy and numeracy and ability to communicate effectively;
  2. The laying of a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking;
  3. Citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society;
  4. Character and moral training and the development of sound attitudes;
  5. Giving the child apportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable him to function effectively in the society within the limits of his capacity;
  6. Developing in the child the ability to adapt to his changing environment;
  7. Providing basic tools for further educational advancement, including preparation for trades and crafts of the locality.

To this end, the government made primary education free and universal by launching the Universal Primary Education Scheme in September, 1976 and proposed to make it compulsory.

In Nigeria, there are four main sources of public funding for the public (non-federal) education sector: direct  allocations  from  the  federal  government  (through  the  Universal  Basic  Education  Intervention Fund and the Education Trust Fund), state governments, local governments, and private individuals and organizations, including nongovernmental organizations and international donors in some states. There is  a  huge  lack  of  information  on  state  and  local  expenditures  for  education,  which  makes  accurate estimates of total spending difficult.

In essence, funding for education in Nigeria come primarily from federal and local governments finance over the years; state governments have tended to prioritize tertiary education relying on local governments’ finance for primary education  (EFA Report, 2014). A general lack of accountability inherent in current practices leads to inefficiency in use of finance. Officials estimate that these challenges account for 40% – 45 % of allocated funds. Recurrent capital expenditure imbalances in budgetary allocations aggravate the challenges and stifle the provision of education infrastructure. The non-inclusion of performance conditions in the criteria for federal matching grants to state governments on basic education may lead to lack of incentives for performance and inefficiency. In Nigeria, parents, local communities and individuals assist in the funding and implementation of basic education programme. Parents deny themselves a lot of things to keep their children in schools. Local communities also often levied themselves to raise enough funds to provide facilities in both primary and secondary the schools like classroom blocks and dormitories. This is because education has been identified by all in the economy as a dynamic instrument of change, hence developed countries and those aspiring to develop have adopted it as an instrument per excellence for effecting national development (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).

To begin with, the word “finance” has many facets. In some uses of the word it means a source of supply, support or aid that can be readily drawn upon. At other times the word resource is used to refer to a capability or determination to persevere. In the context of classrooms, finance are seen as physical demonstration of aids, pupils contextual understandings, teacher subject expertise, and structured organization of materials, ideas, and activities. The points of contact at which students interact with these finance (noting that students themselves can be a resource) are where knowledge construction can occur.

The  federal  government  (FG)  makes  nationwide  policies  and  runs  primary, secondary  (both  junior  and  senior) and post-secondary institutions, including universities, polytechnics, and colleges. The FG funds these through  annual  budgetary  allocations  and  several  targeted  interventions  funds,  including  the  Tertiary Education  Trust  Fund  (TETFund),  debt  relief  grant  (DRG/MDGs),  and  constituency  projects  of  federal legislators.  These funds  also  benefit  state government  schools.  In  addition,  the FG funds the construction  of  several  Almajiri  (Tsangaya)  schools  and  participates in  nomadic education and  adult education  campaigns. The  FG’s  main  intervention  instrument  in  basic education  is  through  a  special Universal Basic Education (UBE) Fund, which makes matching grants to state governments. FG education spending averaged nearly $2 USD billion annually between 2010 and 2014, which amounts to  7.8% of aggregate  FG  spending or  0.5%  of  real  GDP (EFA Report, 2014).  Spending  started  above  this  $2 billion average and rose steadily each year, except in 2012, when it dipped sharply to less than $1.2 USD billion. The  sharp  fall  in  2012  was not  specific  to  the  education  sector;  all  government  functions  were affected  due to the  implementation of  the FG’s fiscal consolidation  regime  aimed to streamline spending and eliminate waste.  The reduction was reflected in education’s share of aggregate spending and GDP, which dipped significantly in 2012, but picked up thereafter.

State Governments (SG) use Local Governments’ (LG) finance to meet their counterpart obligations for accessing federal matching grants, pay primary school teachers, and pay other costs of basic schools or, at least, primary schools.  SGs’ base their stance on the Local Government Decree of 1976, which “assigned formal responsibility for providing and maintaining primary education to LGs, subject to necessary assistance from the states.”  However, the situation changed in the 1999 constitution, which “… envisages that, in the primary and secondary education sub-sectors, the Federal Government’s main role is to determine national policy, set standards (including curriculum) and monitor performance, while the States design, develop and deliver the services” (FMoE, Education Sector Status Report, May, 2003, p. 24).  The Supreme Court interpreted the constitutional provisions as follows, “In so far as primary education is concerned, a local government council only participates with the State Government in its provision and maintenance. The function obviously remains with the State Government”. News reports suggest that the 19 northern SGs’ agreed in a Y2000 education summit with then VP of the country to devote at least, 25% of their budget to education in order to bridge the education gap with southern states, but they failed to honor that agreement (FMoE, 2013)

The role of local governments (LGs) in education is “participation in…the provision and maintenance of primary,  adult,  and  vocational  education.”31  A  2002  Supreme  Court  decision  interpreted  this  to  mean that primary education is a state responsibility in which local governments may participate.  In practice, states  use  federal  allocations  to  local  governments  to  pay  for  primary  school  teachers’  salaries,  and use  local  government  funds  to  pay  their  counterpart  contributions  to  UBEC  grants.    In  addition,  local governments  contribute  to  the  funding  of  state  universities,  especially  in  the  northern  states.  Consequently,  LGs  make  a  huge  contribution  to  education  financing  in  Nigeria,  but  it  is  difficult  to determine the level due to non-publication of LGs’ financial statements

It is imperative for individual schools to begin analyzing the most efficient methods of allocating finance, paying close attention to student and program assessments, working with diverse student populations, and the intentional use of effective learning and instructional strategies.  “More money is needed to achieve equivalent outcomes with high need students…while this complicates analyses of funding and finance, there is no logic under which it provides a justification for spending less on the education of children in poverty.” (Darling-Hammond, 2010)  However, evidence continues to show that the proper allocation of finance has the potential to improve student achievement, even in areas where students have historically underachieved (Odden & Archibald, 2009).  This study will analyze resource allocation strategies in primary schools in Benue State with scarce finance that have consistently contributed to the achievement gap, yet have the potential to outperform schools that have similar demographics and pupils populations.

  • 2 Statement of the Problem

Educational leaders have long sought to understand how to allocate finance to improve school and pupils’ learning outcome. Schools receive funding for the sole purpose of improving educational opportunities and achievement for students. Yet the benefits of increasing that finance are widely disputed. Research conducted outside Nigeria indicates that the level of finance in a school does make a difference in student achievement (Odden, Goertz, & Goertz, 2008).  However, limited research exists in Nigeria on whether increases in funding, utilized effectively and efficiently, does increase student achievement. Financing is often challenging to study because of the lack of disaggregation of district and school level expenditures. Educational boards have not historically kept track of categories of expenditures and are unable to aide researchers in their quest for financial data separated by theme.

Many issues amplify the importance of effective financing and management because of the implications on school funding for primary schools. Funding  for  basic  education  has  come  primarily  from  federal  and  local governments finance over the years; state governments have tended to prioritize tertiary education relying on local governments’ finance for primary education. A general lack of accountability inherent in current  practices  leads  to  inefficiency  in  use  of  finance.  Officials  estimate  that  these  challenges account  for  40%  –  45  %  of  allocated  funds.  Recurrent  capital  expenditure  imbalances  in  budgetary allocations  aggravate  the  challenges  and  stifle  the  provision  of  education  infrastructure. The  non-inclusion of performance conditions in the criteria for federal matching grants to state governments on basic education may lead to lack of incentives for performance and inefficiency.

Schools are under even greater pressure to do more with less and maintain a clear process to decide how to allocate finance in areas that are needed the most and are the most effective. An important concern then, is understanding the connection between resource utilization, data-directed decision-making, and monitoring the use of resource utilization in schools to improve student learning outcome.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The prime purpose of this study was to investigate how financing and school management impacts on learning outcome in primary public schools in Benue State. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following research objectives:

  1. Conceptualize school financial management as they impact on pupils learning outcome;
  2. Determine the extent to which school funding produce effects, feelings, thoughts, and motivations for learners in relation to their learning outcome;
  • Establish the link between government funding and level of learning outcome among students
  1. Find out if school financial management, with special focus on budgeting have direct consequences on learning outcome of students

1.4   Research Questions

The study seeks to answer the following questions

  1. How relevant is the proposed three-model variables of resource allocation, government funding, and school financial management to learning outcome?
  2. To what extent would resource allocation produce effects, feelings, thoughts, and motivations for learners in relation to their learning outcome?
  • Is there any link between government funding and level of learning outcome among pupils?
  1. Would school financial management, with special focus on budgeting have direct consequences on learning outcome of pupils?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

Four null hypotheses were raised in the study.

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of school financial management and pupils learning outcome

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean rating of head teacher and account supervisors on the extent to which school finance would impact on learning outcome of pupils

  • There is no significant difference between the  mean rating  of school management team on the extent to which budget implementation would impact on learning outcome of pupils

  1. There  is  no  significant  difference  between  the  mean  ratings  of  male  and  female  school managers  in  school financial management as they impact on learning outcome of pupils

1.6       Scope of the Study

The study will be based on Benue State of Nigeria. The target population for this study will be the school management team (SMT) bracket of head teachers, Heads of Departments and others considered essential to the study. However, while the title suggests a state-wide study, it is limited to some selected schools in four local governments’ areas of Benue State.

1.4       Significance of the Study

Due to the emphasis on high standards and fiscal accountability, there is a need to inform the research linking student learning outcome to the allocation or reallocation of finance. Schools and leadership teams need current, reliable research and guidance to make fiscally sound decisions so that students can experience the best education possible. There is a need for studying how primary schools spend their funding, and whether there is a significant correlation to student achievement. Findings could aid schools in deciding which programs should stay, be expanded, be reduced, or cut.

Since there is a paucity of empirical studies of this kind in Nigeria,  it is believed that  the  findings  and  implications  of  this  study  will  be  of  a  great  importance  for  the Federal, State and Local governments in terms of assessing their funding of education over the years. Thus, the result of the study could be useful for the education planners to critically review and update funding policy in the area of methodology and content.  The findings of this study will also be relevant to the teachers by providing them with information on funding and finance available which can be improved upon to ensure better performance of learners in school. The study will also provide adequate information for teachers as well as counselors of students on some funding from the government can affect their academic performance.

1.7  Operational Definition of Terms

Finance: Finance is a field that deals with the study of investments. It includes the dynamics of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk. Finance can also be defined as the science of money management. A key point in finance is the time value of money, which states that purchasing power of one unit of currency, can vary over time.


Management: Management is also an academic discipline, a social science whose objective is to study social organization.

Primary School: A primary school or elementary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the ages of about five to eleven, coming before secondary school and after preschool.

Resource Allocation: Resource allocation is the assignment of available resources to various uses. In the context of an entire economy, resources can be allocated by various means, such as markets or central planning.


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Influence of Parental Involvement and Peer Group on the Academic Performance of Students: Case Study of Some Selected Schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State

1.1      Background to the Study

           There have been several studies done within and outside Nigeria on the effects of parenting involvement as well as the socio-economic status of parents on the academic achievement of students.  Research has found many factors that influence how well a student does in school and the amount of confidence the students have for themselves. However, in Nigeria, like other growing economies, families are finding it more difficult to stay connected with their children’s education. This is most common to families living in mega cities such as Lagos where both parents work outside of the home. Carmen (2007) noted that the extended family has become significantly less extended as mobility has increased. Parents are becoming isolated from their children and finding it difficult to keep a careful watch on what needs to be done to help them succeed in school. Many families are not even led by a parent, but by a grandparent, guardian, or some other adult.

Prior to this time, in what is sometimes called a traditional Nigerian family environment, parents were able to monitor the school work of their children carefully  and actively participated in Parents-Teachers Associations purposely to monitor the progress of their children. Report cards were valued and trusted in the home as an accurate reflection of academic achievement. Parents were able to keep in touch with the school and the life of their children in the school, and to monitor success or lack thereof. When children came home from school, homework was completed, assignments finished, and other school works were done.

With the changes in family life and indeed in societal makeup, schools are now finding it increasingly difficult to keep parents informed of and  actively engaged in the day-to-day progress of their children (Deslandes & Bertrand,  2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is not there, because the parents are not home to insist that students complete their assignments.

It must be noted that while there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to progress academically, Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students academic performance. The family background of the student, however is the most important factor that affects the student’s academic performance. In view of this, Hussain (2006) noted that secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor shows how important the family is to academic achievement of students in secondary schools as well as the centrality of parents to the academic performance of students.

Parental involvement in students’ education has been a major topic of study for the later part of the twentieth century.  Baumrind (1971) has been credited for defining three specific parental involvement and their consequences for children. These are (a) authoritative, (b) authoritarian, and (c) permissive involvement of parents in children’s schooling based on levels of warmth and control used by the parent in disciplining the child.  According to Baumrind (1991), parental involvement is meant to capture normal variations in parents attempts to socialize children.  Parental involvement can be both supportive and unsupportive in their tone, both of which affect developmental outcomes and consequences to personality development. Baumrind described how parental involvement affect measures of competence, achievement, and social development.

Although, students are primarily the ones for whom curricula are designed, textbooks are written, and schools built, parents are primarily the ones held responsible for preparing students for learning – preparation physically, psychologically, behaviorally, attitudinally, emotionally, and motivationally, just to name a few.

Over the years, numerous theories and associated constructs have been formulated and have evolved to describe and explain these two independent variables, that is, parents and students. For example, the behavioral learning theories of Thorndike, Watson, Skinner and, Hull, the cognitive learning theories of Piaget, Kolhberg, and Vygotsky, and the social learning theories of Bandura, have been used to pose and answer questions about students and parents. Dornbusch (1996), found empirical evidence of what most parents and educators know from experience – that parents have a strong influence on secondary school students.

In ways similar to the community, the peer group becomes an agency of enculturation and learning. Even very young children develop a sense of self from their perceptions of important people in their surroundings, including relatives, teachers, and peers. Socioeconomic status, ethnic identity, and parents’ occupations affect how families view themselves and the process by which they socialize their children (Bornstein, 2002). Later, as children leave the home setting, their self-perception and socializing skills become influenced by how their peers view them. When children move out from family to child-care centers, school, and the community at large, they begin to form attachments, and friendships emerge through their play. These relationships influence behavior. Even infants and toddlers are observed reacting to other infants by touching them, by crying when others cry, and later by offering nurturance or comfort. By about age three, early friendships begin to form and children’s peers begin to have a  more lasting influence (Parke, 1990).

Peer influence on behavior gradually becomes more dominant. Harris (2002) maintained that peer groups have an even stronger influence than that of parents, although that extreme position has been refuted by other researchers (Berk, 2005). Gradually, children discover that others can share  their feelings or attitudes or have quite different ones. The perspectives of others will affect how children feel about their own families. Children usually have a “family” view of their own and of other cultures. So, when confronted with other perspectives, they often need to rethink their own viewpoints. It is often difficult for children to adjust to the idea that other families can function radically differently from their own and yet hold many of the same attitudes and beliefs and be equally nurturing and secure. The peer group serves as a barometer for children examining themselves and their feelings about self and family.

The peer group also influences development of children’s socializing skills. These early friendships help children learn how to negotiate and relate to others, including their siblings and other family members. They learn from peers how to cooperate and socialize according to group norms and group-sanctioned modes of behavior.

The peer group can influence what the child values, knows, wears, eats, and learns. The extent of this influence, however, depends on other situational constraints, such as the age and  personality of children and the nature of the group (Harris, 1998; Hartup, 1983).

The aforementioned studies are not the only ones that speak to the issue of parenting involvement and peer group inlfuence, but, here, serve only as a way of introducing the broader sphere. In this present study, parenting involvement and peer group was studied in reference to its influence on the academic performance of students’  in secondary school.


 1.2 Statement of the Problem

Although, scholars have identified the correlation between parental and peer group influences on children academic performance in the primary school, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their academics. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between parenting style, socio-economic status of parents and peer group influence on secondary school students’ academic performance.

1.3. Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study was to examine the influence of parenting style  and socio-economic status on students’ academic performance. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine the correlation between parental involvement and academic performance of students in secondary school
  2. Examine the relationship between peer group pressure and academic performance of adolescents
  3. Investigate the effects of the socio-economic status of parents on student’s academic performance;
  4. Examine the perceptions of students towards their parents in regards to parenting style and their academic performance.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What relationship exists between the type of parental involvement and secondary school student academic achievement?
  2. Do socio-economic and educational background of parents affect their involvement in their children in secondary schools?
  3.  Do parenting style and parental involvement directly affect students academic performance?
  4.  Do peer group affect the academic performance of students?


1.5 Research Hypotheses

H01: There is no statistically significant difference between parental involvement and academic performance of students in secondary school.

H02: There is no significant difference between peer group pressure and academic performance of adolescents

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study was limited by a convenience sample of approximately twenty (20) students from five secondary schools and 20 (twenty) parents (comprising of teachers with children)  from Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State. The sample was limited to students in secondary school from Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State.

Apart from the shortage of fund and time frame, the following limits were found in the study:

  1. It is recognized that not every parent will fit neatly into a particular parenting style.  These parent-child pairs will be discarded from the sample.
  2. Some children will rate their parents as fair when in actuality they are not, therefore there will be some bias in the parents nominations.
  3. It is recognized that a parenting style may be chosen by a family due need rather than desire.
  4. The study was limited to the students whose parents gave consent for their participation, as well as, receiving the students’ assent.
  5. The accuracy of the data was limited by the skills of the researcher and validity of the tests administered.


1.7 Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic performance. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It has provide empirical evidence to schools, parents, and students about the nature of parental involvement and how it affects the academic performance of students
  1. It offers a reference for future research that might investigate the same variables.

1.7 Operational Definition of Primary Variables

Parent:  The term parent as used in this study includes, in addition to a natural  parent, a legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis, such as a grandparent or  stepparent with whom the child lives, or a person who is legally responsible for a child’s welfare.

Parental Involvement: any form of verbal or non-verbal communication or assistance in reference to a child’s homework.

Parenting Style: The overall emotional climate of the parent-child relationship- an affective context of sorts that sets the tone for the parents interactions with the child.

Student academic achievement: This term refers to the student’s overall average  in science, social studies, English, and math, expressed as a percent grade. 

Peer group: A peer group is a primary group of people, typically informal, who share a similar or equal status and who are usually or roughly the same age, tended to travel around and interact within the social aggregate

Peer influence:  peer influence can be described as the pressure adolescents feel from their peers. Also, it can be the pressure planned or unplanned.

Adolescence: refers to the transitory period where a child moves to adulthood. The adolescent years fall within 12-18 years.


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FCMB (3558545017).

Online Payment

*737* GTBank Instant Transfer