Chapter One: Introduction

Adolescent pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 18th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult. The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school.  The major problem with adolescent pregnancy and relating to this study is that many girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities. Although, studies have shown that delaying adolescent births could significantly lower population growth rates, potentially generating broad economic and social benefits, in addition to improving the health of adolescents; scholars are yet to directly link pregnancy on early and later adolescents as a factor which affects students’ performance in schools.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of pregnancy on early and later adolescents on students’ performance in schools and its implications for guidance. This chapter outlines the review of literature. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. The sub-headings are: theoretical framework, Teenage pregnancy and school attendance, teenage pregnancy and emotional behaviour, and teenage pregnancy and school performance. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of all secondary school teenagers in Ijebu-Ife metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The sample for this study constituted three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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1.1   Background to the Study     

  There have been several studies done within and outside Nigeria on the effects of home environment as well as the socio-economic status of parents on the academic achievement of students (Ajila  & Olutola,  2007; Uwaifo, 2012) .  Research has found many factors that influence how well a student does in school and the amount of confidence the students have for themselves. However, in Nigeria, like other growing economies, families are finding it more difficult to stay connected with their children’s education. This is most common to families living in populated areas such as Lagos where both parents work outside of the home. Carmen (2007) noted that the extended family has become significantly less extended as mobility has increased. Parents are becoming isolated from their children and finding it difficult to keep a careful watch on what needs to be done to help them succeed in school. Many families are not even led by a parent, but by a grandparent, guardian, or some other adult.

                Prior to this time, in what is sometimes called a traditional Nigerian family environment, parents were able to monitor the school work of their children carefully  and actively participated in Parents-Teachers Associations purposely to monitor the progress of their children. Report cards were valued and trusted in the home as an accurate reflection of academic achievement. Parents were able to keep in touch with the school and the life of their children in the school, and to monitor success or lack thereof. When children came home from school, homework was completed, assignments finished, and other school works were done.

With the changes in family life and indeed in societal makeup, schools are now finding it increasingly difficult to keep parents informed of and  actively engaged in the day-to-day progress of their children (Deslandes & Bertrand,  2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is not there, because the parents are not home to insist that students complete their assignments.

It must be noted that while there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to adjust to the demands of adolscence, Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students. The family background of the student, however is the most important factor that affects the student’s. In view of this, Hussain (2006) noted that secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children.

As a result of the challenges faced by families, many adolescents however engage in unhealthy risk behaviours such as: substance abuse, dangerous dieting, eating disorders, staying out all night, unprotected sexual activity, gang violence, handling weapons, bullying, shoplifting and stealing. Specific problems that can arise from such risky behaviours during adolescence include increased levels of stress, depression, anxiety, anorexia and substance dependence.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Although, scholars have identified the correlation between psycho-social factors and maladjustment among children, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their lives. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between psychosocial factors and maladjustment among adolescents in Abuja.

1.3       Research Objectives

The purpose of this study is to investigate psycho-social factors that influence adolescent behaviour.  Specifically, the goal of this study is to determine whether the psychosocial variables of family background, parents’ socio-economic status, peer influence and the adolescents’ self concept have direct effect on their maladjustments. Hence, the general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine the correlation between family background and maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school;
  2. Find out whether parents’ socio-economic status have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school
  3. Investigate the effects of peer group influence on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school;
  4. Examine the whether self-concept have significant effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school

1.4            Research Questions

Is there any correlation between family background and maladjustment among in-school adolescents in Nigeria?

Would parents’ socio-economic status have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

Does peer group influence have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

Does self-concept have significant effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

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 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study examines the effects of psychosocial variables of family background, parents’ socio-economic status, peer influence and self concept on maladjustments among adolescents in secondary schools using some selected schools in Abuja as case study.

The study will be delimited by a convenience sample of approximately 20 (twenty) students from five secondary schools and 20 (twenty) parents from Abuja.

Apart from the shortage of fund and time frame, the following limits are expected to be encounter in the study:

1.  It is recognized that not every parent will fit neatly into a particular parenting style.  These parent-child pairs will be discarded from the sample.

2.  Some adolescents will rate their parents as fair when in actuality they are not, therefore there will be some bias in the parents nominations.

3.  It is recognized that many adolescents may not give factual information as regards their maladjustments

4.  The accuracy of the data was limited by the skills of the researcher and validity of the tests administered.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar students’ during adolescence. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It has provide empirical evidence to schools, parents, and students about the nature of development adolescents may encounter and how it affects their behavior.
  2. It offers a reference for future research that might investigate the same variables.

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This study examines the correlation between peer influence and sexual behaviour of secondary school students using Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State as case study. A sample of 100 adolescents drawn from JSS 3 – SS 3 classes of four mixed public secondary schools was used. Four research hypotheses were formulated. The findings show that there is correlation between peer group influence and permissive attitude toward sexual practices among secondary schools students. There was no difference in terms of age and sex. Boys tend to be more sexual active than girls, while involvement in sexual activity increased with age. The study established that peers exert great influence on the adolescent through various means. These include exposure to pornographic films, pornographic magazines, romantic novels, and discussion of sexual issues. The study also discusses the dangers of this situation for the adolescents. The study recommends that relevant sexuality and reproductive health information should be provided to adolescents through joint effort by parents, counselors and educators so as to enlighten them on the dangers of pre-marital sex.

The Influence of Peer Group Pressure on Adolescents’ Academic Performance in Nigerian Schools

This study investigated the influence of peer group on adolescent’s  academic performance. Descriptive research methodology was used.  Random sampling technique was also adopted to select about one  hundred and fifty in-school adolescents from four secondary schools in two Local Governments Areas of  Ogun State.  Questionnaire was developed to collect data. The data collected was analyzed using the  using t-test and Pearson. The findings of this study revealed that peer  group could either positively or negatively influence the academic  performance of in-school adolescents. This research recommends that parents and teachers should provide adequate guidance to adolescents to help them understand how the friends they keep can either positively or negatively influence their academic performance in school.