This study intends to investigate the use of adult education as an agent for social change in Nigeria using Lagos State as a case study. While the overall aim of the research is to empirically find out whether adult education has had significant impact on Lagos State, it will also discuss the importance of adult education as well as the challenges facing adult education in Nigeria. The research distinguishes between adult education for working adults and Adult Education as a course of study in the University. This study is centered on adult education for working adults. Using Lagos State as a case study, the research adopts descriptive research survey with focus on adult students offering various courses at Lagos State University. Questionnaire was developed to cover the research questions and hypotheses. A total of 40 respondents are to be used for the study. Chi Square statistical tool will be used for data analysis. Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking adult education to national development will be made in the final chapter.


Complete Project: 65

Pages Literature Review: 2005 Upward

Data Analysis: Chi Square Statistical Tool

Research Population:

40 Adult Education Students Research

Location: Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria

Questionnaire: 20 Items x 40

Respondents References: APA Style, 6th Edition (2010).

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This study centers on how age, gender, and years of experiences predict job performance among non-academic staff administrators using Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun as case study. Job performance is among the most explored concepts in employee and organizational research (Igbaria and Shayo, 2007). There is, however, a lack of job performance research focused on university non-academic staff employees, a group many universities rely upon for the management of their daily operations. Using Tai Solarin University of Education as case study, the research adopts descriptive research survey to investigate age, gender, and years of experiences as predictors of job performance among non-academic staff administrators. Questionnaire will be developed to cover the research questions and hypotheses. A total of 40 respondents are to be used for the study. Chi Square statistical tool will be used for data analysis. Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations are made in the final chapter.

Chapter One: Introduction

Over the years, higher education has experienced a major transformation in its overall complexity, diversity, and significance. Universities and colleges have had to adapt to a variety of issues and conditions that require higher education administrators to be innovative and resourceful when developing strategies that increase academic achievement and student learning. In order to balance internal and external pressures for student learning strategies it has become important that higher education administrators continue to explore what academic and administrative functions impact students on a university campus. Given these expectations for student learning, higher education administrators have developed, maintained, and enhanced institutional quality and effectiveness. Having administrators identify and evaluate what institutional programs and services create a social and intellectual environment for students helps to build a successful institutional climate and culture.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This section begins with the theoretical framework and examines theories on job performance. It also examines the relationship between age and job performance; gender and job performance and, years of experience and job performance.


Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This will study use descriptive survey type. The target population involves non-academic staff members of the university. The sample consists of forty (40) non-academic staff members randomly selected from the Tai Solarin University of Education. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Chi-square analysis will be used to analyze the data collected.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.


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Social Media Usage as Predictor of Examination Malpractices among Students in Nigeria


1.1 Background to the Study

Scholars have indentified age of the student (Achio, 2012);gender of the student (Nwafor, 2009); as well as test anxiety (Omotere, 2011) as traditional predictors of examination malpractices among students. Other predictors of examination malpractices that have equally received the attention of scholars include peer group pressure, poor study habit, and fear of failure. However, social media has received little or no attention by scholars.

Social media is defined as “the relationships that exist between network of people” (Qingya, Wei & Yu, 2011: 3). Social media emerged as a term frequently used to describe different types of electronic communication platforms. The availability of high speed internet broadband connection with massive use of desktop computers, laptops, e-readers, tablets and smart phones enable millions of undergraduates to actively engage in social networking, text messaging, blogging, content sharing, online learning, and much more.

Social media, as defined by Bryer and Zavatarro (2011: 327), “are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration, and enable deliberation across stakeholders”. These technologies now include blogs, wikis, media (audio, photo, video, text) sharing tools, networking platforms, and virtual worlds. Social Media Online (2011) defines social media as primarily internet-and mobile-based tools for sharing and discussing information by users. The term, according to Andreas and Michael (2010: 61), refers to “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.” Web 2.0 was coined by  Darcy DiNucci in 1999 to describe interactive social websites which allow users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue.

A growing number of Nigerian scholars agree that addiction to social media sites are potentially a disruptive technology to students’ academic work in higher education. Among them is Oluwatoyin (2011: 13) who surveyed 1,860 Facebook users from the Lagos State University and found that most of the students could not get cumulative grade point average (CGPA) above 3.50 because they’ve spent large part of their time on social media than on their home work and study time which could contribute to higher grade. Oluwatoyin’s findings is further supported by Ajewole and Fasola (2011: 69) whose study of 884 students from eight higher institutions in Oyo State showed that majority of them spend more time on social media at the detriment of their studies.

This view is however rejected by some researchers who acknowledge that social media sites not only re-engage learners with their studies but also enhance their academic performance. For instance, Onyeka, Sajoh & Bulus (2013:39) argue that the frequent use of social media sites has no negative effect on the students’ studies. In the same vein, Ogedebe, Emmanuel & Musa (2012: 788) posited that Facebook usage does not have adverse effect on the academic work of students in the Universities.

While the present study is not burdened with the direct effect of social media usage on undergraduates’ CGPA, its primary focus is centered how social media usage predicts examination malpractices among students.


 1.2       Statement of the problem

Many educators and educationists such Adesina (2006), Anwabor (2006), Bamwo (2006) and Jekayinfa (2006) have written on many aspects of examination dishonesty in the Nigerian education system. However, none of them has written on how the usage of social media affects examination fraud. They also did not discuss how the introduction of ICT tools can help curb examination fraud in Nigeria. This study has attempted to fill that gap.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to examine the implication of social media usage on examination malpractice among students in Nigeria. Specifically, the study will:

 i.            Examine the social of social media tools on students’ study time.

 ii.        To ascertain the reasons why social media is adopted by student        for examination malpractice.

 iii.            Investigate strategies which students’ apply when using social media for examination malpractice.

 iv.            To ascertain the social media tools that are mostly adopted for examination malpractice

1.4       Research questions

 i.            Which social media tool is the most potent that is often adopted by students for malpractice?

  ii.            Has social media usage affected students’ reading schedules?

iii.            What strategies are adopted by students when using the social media for examination malpractice?

1.5   Research hypothesis


1.6       Scope of the study

This research work is based on social media as predictor of examination malpractice among student. The population consists of 200 students in four faculties at Olabisi Onabanjo University (OOU). Specifically, the literature discusses the variables vis-à-vis examination malpractices prevalent among students. It does not however extend to all the methods used by students to carry out examination malpractices but are based on the use of social media tools for exam fraud.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This research work will suggest to the government, the need to expand the scope of their policies on examination malpractice to make provision for examination malpractices that are perpetrated through social media tools.

It will further enlighten the school management and supervisors to the growing trend of social media usage and how it is been used for examination malpractices and how to curb their students’ from indulging it to perpetrate malpractice.

It will enlighten parents on the need for them to be sensitive, pay attention, to caution and regulate the manner in which their children use social media tools which will help to reduce the prevalence of examination malpractice.

Definition of Terms


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There are evidences that many students engage in examination malpractices. We have successfully conducted a study on the causes of examination malpractices among students.  “Age, Sex And Test Anxiety As Predictors Of Examination Malpractices Among Secondary School Students” 


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