Social Media Usage as Predictor of Examination Malpractices among Students in Nigeria

PROPOSAL

1.1 Background to the Study

Scholars have indentified age of the student (Achio, 2012);gender of the student (Nwafor, 2009); as well as test anxiety (Omotere, 2011) as traditional predictors of examination malpractices among students. Other predictors of examination malpractices that have equally received the attention of scholars include peer group pressure, poor study habit, and fear of failure. However, social media has received little or no attention by scholars.

Social media is defined as “the relationships that exist between network of people” (Qingya, Wei & Yu, 2011: 3). Social media emerged as a term frequently used to describe different types of electronic communication platforms. The availability of high speed internet broadband connection with massive use of desktop computers, laptops, e-readers, tablets and smart phones enable millions of undergraduates to actively engage in social networking, text messaging, blogging, content sharing, online learning, and much more.

Social media, as defined by Bryer and Zavatarro (2011: 327), “are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration, and enable deliberation across stakeholders”. These technologies now include blogs, wikis, media (audio, photo, video, text) sharing tools, networking platforms, and virtual worlds. Social Media Online (2011) defines social media as primarily internet-and mobile-based tools for sharing and discussing information by users. The term, according to Andreas and Michael (2010: 61), refers to “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.” Web 2.0 was coined by  Darcy DiNucci in 1999 to describe interactive social websites which allow users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue.

A growing number of Nigerian scholars agree that addiction to social media sites are potentially a disruptive technology to students’ academic work in higher education. Among them is Oluwatoyin (2011: 13) who surveyed 1,860 Facebook users from the Lagos State University and found that most of the students could not get cumulative grade point average (CGPA) above 3.50 because they’ve spent large part of their time on social media than on their home work and study time which could contribute to higher grade. Oluwatoyin’s findings is further supported by Ajewole and Fasola (2011: 69) whose study of 884 students from eight higher institutions in Oyo State showed that majority of them spend more time on social media at the detriment of their studies.

This view is however rejected by some researchers who acknowledge that social media sites not only re-engage learners with their studies but also enhance their academic performance. For instance, Onyeka, Sajoh & Bulus (2013:39) argue that the frequent use of social media sites has no negative effect on the students’ studies. In the same vein, Ogedebe, Emmanuel & Musa (2012: 788) posited that Facebook usage does not have adverse effect on the academic work of students in the Universities.

While the present study is not burdened with the direct effect of social media usage on undergraduates’ CGPA, its primary focus is centered how social media usage predicts examination malpractices among students.

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 1.2       Statement of the problem

Many educators and educationists such Adesina (2006), Anwabor (2006), Bamwo (2006) and Jekayinfa (2006) have written on many aspects of examination dishonesty in the Nigerian education system. However, none of them has written on how the usage of social media affects examination fraud. They also did not discuss how the introduction of ICT tools can help curb examination fraud in Nigeria. This study has attempted to fill that gap.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to examine the implication of social media usage on examination malpractice among students in Nigeria. Specifically, the study will:

 i.            Examine the social of social media tools on students’ study time.

 ii.        To ascertain the reasons why social media is adopted by student        for examination malpractice.

 iii.            Investigate strategies which students’ apply when using social media for examination malpractice.

 iv.            To ascertain the social media tools that are mostly adopted for examination malpractice

1.4       Research questions

 i.            Which social media tool is the most potent that is often adopted by students for malpractice?

  ii.            Has social media usage affected students’ reading schedules?

iii.            What strategies are adopted by students when using the social media for examination malpractice?

1.5   Research hypothesis

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1.6       Scope of the study

This research work is based on social media as predictor of examination malpractice among student. The population consists of 200 students in four faculties at Olabisi Onabanjo University (OOU). Specifically, the literature discusses the variables vis-à-vis examination malpractices prevalent among students. It does not however extend to all the methods used by students to carry out examination malpractices but are based on the use of social media tools for exam fraud.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This research work will suggest to the government, the need to expand the scope of their policies on examination malpractice to make provision for examination malpractices that are perpetrated through social media tools.

It will further enlighten the school management and supervisors to the growing trend of social media usage and how it is been used for examination malpractices and how to curb their students’ from indulging it to perpetrate malpractice.

It will enlighten parents on the need for them to be sensitive, pay attention, to caution and regulate the manner in which their children use social media tools which will help to reduce the prevalence of examination malpractice.

Definition of Terms

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Impact of Poverty and Child Abuse on Nigeria’s Development

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Background to the Study

Research has shown that there is a link between poverty and child abuse (Sedlak et al., 2010). It is on record that the poverty line in the country is far above 70%. The relationship between income and child abuse is less consistent in studies of high-risk (primarily low-income) populations, where variance in family income is constricted. Several such studies failed to find an association between income, per se, and child welfare system involvement (Slack, Holl, Lee, McDaniel, Altenbernd, and Stevens, 2003), while others demonstrated that income is inversely associated with abuse reports, even after adjusting for potentially confounding factors (Shook, 1999).

Child abuse consists of any act, or failure to act, that endangers a child’s physical or emotional health and development. Child abusers inflict physical, sexual and emotional trauma on defenceless children every day. The scars can be deep and long-lasting.

Unfortunately, the more subtle forms of child abuse such as neglect and emotional abuse can be even more traumatizing than violent physical abuse.  According to Owuamanam et al (2005) the African Charter on the rights and welfare of the child recognizes that the child in any African setting occupies a unique and privilege position and that the child should grow up in a complete state of well-being to be provided by the family for full and harmonious development of his personality. The requirements embedded for a complete state of well-being are basic amenities, parental responsibilities in all dimensions, freedom to belong, adequate shelter, personal growth, autonomy, purpose in life, environmental mastery, and positive relations with others.

There are various types of child abuse. There are physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. Physical child abuse is an injury resulting from physical aggression. Even if the injury was not intended, the act is considered physical abuse.

According to Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007), more children suffer from neglect than from physical and sexual abuse combined. Yet victims are not often identified, primarily because neglect is a type of child abuse that is an act of omission, of not doing something.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Child abuse occurs in many forms and across all socio-economic groups (Beckett, (2003). Children who experience both poverty and child abuse are doubly disadvantaged because the experience of child abuse may in turn further undermine life chances in the long term. Poverty and child abuse in Nigeria cuts across various ethnic groups and nationalities. It goes further to show the level of decay our society had been subject to misrule often occasion by corruption, bad governance, greed and exploitation of the few elites against the poor masses of this country. Unfortunately, indebt study is yet to be conducted on the relationship between poverty and child abuse. Therefore, the presence study seeks to examine the relationship how poverty increases the chance of child abuse, a particularly among low income earners.

 1.3       Research Questions

1.         What are the causes of child abuse?

2.         Is there any relationship between poverty and child abuse?

3.         Does poverty really have effects on childhood experiences?

4.         How does poverty and child abuse affect the development of Nigeria?

1.4       Purpose of the Study

The purpose general purpose of this research work is to examine the relationship or link between poverty and child abuse. The specific purpose is to:

  1. Find out the causes and types of child abuse
  2. Investigate the relationship between poverty and teenage
  3. Examine the long and short term effects of poverty on the child
  4. Analyse how poverty and child abuse affect the development of Nigeria

1.5       Research Hypotheses

Ho1    There is no significant difference between poverty and child abuse

Ho2    There is no significant difference between poverty and national development

Ho3    There is no significant difference between child abuse and national development

Ho4    There is no significant difference between poverty and child abuse  and national development

1.5       Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on poverty and child abuse in five selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Benin City, Nigeria. However, one hundred and fifty (150) student from five secondary school in the local government Area will be randomly.

1.6       Significance of the Study

The present study will be very significant because it will enlighten the general public on the causes and types of child abuse. It will also highlight the relationship and link between poverty and child abuse. It will assist parents on how to cater for their wards and not to abuse them either physically or otherwise. It will further suggest possible solutions on ways to tackle the incidence of child abise as well as eradicate poverty in the country.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Poverty: Poverty is the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money

Child Abuse: Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional mistreatment or neglect of a child or children.

Child Neglect: Child neglect is a form of child maltreatment.

Student: A student is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution.

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AGE, GENDER, AND YEARS OF EXPERIENCE AS PREDICTORS OF JOB PERFORMANCE AMONG NON-ACADEMIC STAFF ADMINISTRATORS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

1.1       Background to the Study

Job performance is among the most explored concepts in employee and organizational research (Bardett & McKinney, 2004). Researchers have taken special interest in job performance because of its humanitarian, hypothetical, and fiscal significance to an organization (Balzer et al., 1997). There is, however, a lack of job performance research focused on university non-academic staff employees, a group many universities rely upon for the management of their daily operations.

Age variables have received of attention of scholars over the past few years, and there has been a good deal of research that has demonstrated significant relationships between various personality facets including age and job performance. More recent studies have focused on which specific aspects of age are most predictive of job performance, with a particular focus on those nearing retirement (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). Age, in this sense refers to both young adults who are energetic as well as those nearing retirement age and how it affects their job performance.

In Nigeria, retirement has traditionally been associated with a permanent exit from the workforce around the age of 65. Most government and private pensions take effect at this age making retirement a viable option for older employees. However, as changes have occurred in society so has the nature of retirement. As a result, more and more people are choosing to retire before the age of 65 (Dada and Idowu, 2006). Explanations for the increase in early retirement have stemmed from a number of changes including shifts in workforce demographics, advances in technology, fluctuations in the economy, and progress in legislation. Some of these factors have reduced the demand for older workers, making early retirement an attractive option. For instance, increases in the number of youths and women, entering the labour force have resulted in the displacement of many older workers. Technological changes have also made some of their skills obsolete. For these individuals, taking early retirement might be a better option than competing with a younger, more diverse workforce for jobs or finding ways to update their skills. This, however, have direct effect on the performance of workers in the university setting.

Research on the relationship between gender and job performance indicates that organizational policies on women contribute to cultural biases and values which invariably affect their performance in the work place (Cascio & Aguinis, 2005). In most cases, these original rules, policies, and practices have been modified very little to account for the enormous influx of diversity into the workplace, resulting in reduced opportunities for the women in the organization. Gender could affect the job performance of administrators in the university (Kawakami, White, & Langer, 2000). A key premise of the current research is that job performance can be affected by the combined effects of gender-role stereotypes held by job raters thereby creating negative consequences for job performance among non-academic women  in the university.

Research on years of experience of workers reveals that it is a good predictor of job performance among non-academic staff in universities (Culp, 2005). Higher education institutions of all types and sizes are being encouraged to be diverse and retain those with a vast  years of experience in the administrative field. According to Culp (2005), this will make the institution to be more to be accessible and to offer quality programs in order to meet the needs and wants of their students. Although differences are evident between federal, state and privately owned private universities in Nigeria, institutions still must encourage all departments on campus to enhance their programs and improve effectiveness and help build awareness and pride among the staff and students. Having a thorough understanding of how higher education administrators function helps universities and colleges identify what departmental programs and services have the greatest amount of influence on the overall productivity of the college campus.

Studying job performance allows campus administrators to identify what long-established institutional behaviors and actions give them satisfaction in their work performance. Performance in the workplace should instill a positive work environment and continue to impede adaptability and positive change (Sopow, 2006). If campus administrators are to assume responsibility for managing their work environment, further research is needed to assess the relationship between age, gender, and years of experiences of campus administrator‘s  and their job performance.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Over the years, higher education has experienced a major transformation in its overall complexity, diversity, and significance. Universities and colleges have had to adapt to a variety of issues and conditions that require higher education administrators to be innovative and resourceful when developing strategies that increase academic achievement and student learning. In order to balance internal and external pressures for student learning strategies it has become important that higher education administrators continue to explore what academic and administrative functions impact students on a university campus. Given these expectations for student learning, higher education administrators have developed, maintained, and enhanced institutional quality and effectiveness. Having administrators identify and evaluate what institutional programs and services create a social and intellectual environment for students helps to build a successful institutional climate and culture.

1.3         Purpose of the Study

The general aim of this research is to examine the age, gender, and years of experiences as predictors of job performance among non-academic staff administrators using Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun as case study. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were set:

  1.  To Find out whether age predicts job performance among administrators
  2.  Find out if gender of the administrator has any relationship with job performance in the workplace
  3.  Find out if years of experience may affect the job performance of administrators at the workplace
  4.  To find out if job performance may depend on such factors as age, gender and years of experience of administrators.

1.4       Research Question

The research will answer the question:

  1.  Is there any significant difference between age of administrators and their job performance in the workplace?
  2.  Is there any significant difference between gender of administrators and their job performance in the workplace?
  3.  Is there any significant difference between years of experience and their job performance in the workplace?
  4.  What impact does age, gender and years of experience of administrators have on their job performance

 1.5       Research Hypotheses

Ho1 There is no statistically significant difference between the age of administrators and their job performance in the workplace

Ho2 There is no statistically significant difference gender of administrators and their job performance in the workplace

Ho3 There is no statistically significant difference between years of experience and their job performance in the workplace

Ho4 There is no statistically significant difference age, gender and years of experience of administrators and their job performance

1.6       Scope of the Study

            This study centers on the correlation between age, gender, and years of experiences and job performance among non-academic staff administrators using Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun as case study. Forty non-academic members of staff of TASUED will be randomly selected as respondents. The study covers eight years (2005 to 2013) period.

1.7       Limitations of the Study

Apart from short of fund and timeframe to conduct the study, this study is further limited by the following factors:

  1.  An attitudinal scale is going to be used by the researcher to measure job performance in the study. Opinions and perceptions of university administrators may change with time and may be affected by non-work variables. In addition, an employee‘s work environment, individual responsibilities, and positions may change. Therefore, levels of job performance may change.
  2.  Findings are going to be based on self-reported responses to the job performance questionnaire and, therefore, rely on the accurate self-assessment, honesty, and motivation of responders.
  3. Testing job performance over an extended period of time among members of staff in the university will be limited to five years study, despite that most members of non-academic staff of the university were formerly members of staff in the then Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijagun.

1.8       Significance of the Study

This will aid our knowledge about job performance and how various factors affect the performance of non academic administrative staff in higher institution in Nigeria. It will also show why there is need for the government and the institutions to develop effective communication on organizing seminars and workshops for administrators to enable them perform better at their workplace.

This study will bring about understanding with regard to what problems administrators encounter in performing their duties at the workplace. This will then allow the development of improved strategies of help or intervention either by the government, corporate institutions, the universities societies, groups and individuals on solving those problems.

This study is deemed important given the scarcity of adequate literature or studies on the relationship between the age, gender and years of experience as predictors of job performance among non-academic staff in Nigerian universities.

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In  this  regard,  it  will  be  useful  for  other  researchers  who might want to carry out research in related areas.

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms

Examination: examination is a way to ascertain how much of a subject matter in a particular field of study the candidate has mastered. In other words, it is a process through which studies are evaluated or tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within a specific period.

Age: the chronological age of a person

Gender: the state of a being female or male

Job Performance: Job performance is a commonly used, yet poorly defined concept in industrial and organizational psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. It’s also part of Human Resources Management. It most commonly refers to whether a person performs their job well.

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INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON UNDERGRADUATES’ PERCEPTION OF COURTSHIP AND ITS’ RELATIONSHIP WITH PRE-MARITAL SEX

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the influence of demographic factors on undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex using the University of Abuja, Abuja as case study. Demographic factors identified in the study were family background, university environment, peers and social media. These factors were examined to determine their influence on the perception of undergraduates‘ toward courtship and pre-marital sex. Questionnaire was constructed to test the hypotheses formulated. Simple percentage statistical tool was employed to analyse the variables. Based on the findings, it was discovered that family background, peers, university environment and social media have direct impact on students’ perception of courtship and subsequently, their engagement in risky sexual behaviours. Recommendations were made to address the problems associated with pre-marital sex among undergraduates in Nigeria.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 1.1       Background to the Study

University campuses offer a unique environment for students either to pursue a traditional courtship style or engage in a courtship style that is driven by pre-marital sexual intercourse. Several studies have been carried out on what influences students choice of courtship style in the university (Bogle, 2008; Glenn & Marquardt, 2001; and Knudson-Martin and Mahoney, 2009). These studies indicate that young men and women are more frequently engaging in casual sex or what is known as ‘campus courtship’ or ‘hooking up’ than the traditional courtship where lovers are not to engage in pre-marital sex. Hooking up carries a level of ambiguity but has been generally defined as a sexual encounter, anything from kissing to having sex, especially between young men and women without implying any marital commitment.

The large percentage of divorces each year, non-marital pregnancies and pre-marital sex has all dramatically changed the traditional family structure. Courtship which was a trend that has been present for decades in Nigeria became popular as a result of western education. Courtship among undergraduates has changed the realm of male and female interaction as it used to be in the traditional African society. Prior to the colonial era, men had to call upon women and be invited to visit the woman’s home under strict supervision from the family. This type of courtship was a form of traditional courtship that had very clearly delineated guidelines that, men and women were expected to follow. However, western education has totally redefined how young men and women court before getting married. The university environment provides the opportunity for young individuals to go out to places away from the watchful eyes of the family and community members and engage in another kind of campus courtship popularly known as ‘hooking up’.

Several demographic factors such as the mass media, the social media, internet, peers, changing family traditions, money, the university environment, among others affects how young men and women participate in courtship alongside modern social changes. The influence of these demographic factors on undergraduates’ sexual behavior, particularly in the areas of courtship and its relationship with premarital sex, deserves scholarly attention.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Literature regarding the impact of demographic factors on undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex is limited. This research seeks to fill the vacuum by examining whether demographic factors with special reference to peers, university environment, family background and the social media have any significant effect on undergraduates’ perceptions of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex.

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the influence of demographic factors on the perceptions of undergraduates towards courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex. The general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Assess undergraduates’ perceptions of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex
  2. Examine undergraduates’ perceptions of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex
  3. Investigate how the family background influence the perception of university students towards courtship
  4. Examine how the social media influence the perception of university students towards courtship
  5. Examine how the university environment influence the perception of university students towards courtship
  6. Examine how peers influence the perception of university students towards courtship

1.4       Justification of the Study

This study proposes to investigate undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex. This is justified because perceptions are known to affect behavior. Undergraduates’ sexual behavior, especially in relation to pre-marital sex could be as a result of their perceptions toward courtship. The study therefore sets out to investigate how demographic factors influence this perception through the existing literature and the testing of the formulated hypotheses.

 1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions will be addressed by this study:

i.  To what extent does undergraduates’ perception of courtship affect their desire to engage in pre-marital sex?

ii.     Would there be any significant relationship between family background and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

iii.      Does the university environment have any impact on undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

iv.        Would there be any significant relationship between the university environment and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

v.        Would there be any significant relationship between social media and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

vi.            Would there be any significant relationship between peers and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

1.6       Research Hypotheses

Ho1 There is no significant difference between undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex.

Ho2 There is no significant difference between family background and undergraduates’ perception of courtship

Ho3 There is no significant difference between university environment and undergraduates’ perception of courtship

Ho4 There is no significant difference between social media and undergraduates’ perception of courtship

 1.7   Significance of the Study

A major concern in Nigerian universities today is the issue of unwanted pregnancy, high rate of abortion, reported cases of HIV/AIDS, etc all of which negatively affects the smooth running of individual academic programme. One of the ways to find solution to this problem is to address the issue of students’ perception of courtship and pre-marital sex. Going by this, it becomes important to discuss the perception of young adults toward courtship and subsequently pre-marital sex.

The study is therefore significant for the following reasons:

  1. This study will be useful to both male and female undergraduates who are either into courtship or are intending to start afresh.
  2. It will also help young people in understanding each other during courtship which important for those who intend to get married.
  3. Since this study examines the perception of students toward courtship, it will assist them to make informed decisions in their relationship.
  4. Lastly, it will assist other researchers who might want to conduct similarly study.

 1.8   Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the influence of demographic factors on undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex using the University of Abuja, Abuja as case study. Two hundred (200) students from different faculties will be randomly selected for the study. The study covers a four year period, 2008 to 2012.

1.9 Definitions of Terms

Relative to this study, definitions to the following terms are provided in order to clarify each in the context of the topic:

Courtship- is the period in a couple’s relationship which precedes their engagement and marriage, or establishment of an agreed relationship of a more enduring kind.

Hooking up- is a term associated with the normative sexual behavior of university students today while historically it was perceived as a one-night stand or labeled as casual sex.

Marriage- also called matrimony or holy wedlock is a social union or legal contract between people (a man and a woman) that creates kinship. In Nigeria, marriage is recommended or compulsory for two opposite sex.

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