THE EFFECTS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

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Chapter One: Introduction

Boko Haram operates as the world most deadly terrorist group, killing over 30,000 civilians and displaced 2,152,000 people in Nigeria, Chad and neighbouring Cameroon (IDMC, 2015). In its bid to counter the group’s insurgency, the Nigerian government launched series of counterinsurgency operations between 2010 and 2015, with varying degree of human rights abuses on both sides (Vanguard, 2016). For instance, since the insurgency escalated in 2009, the Nigerian military arrested over 20,000 suspected terrorists and arbitrarily tortured 8000 people to death (Amnesty Inernational, 2015). Similarly, Boko Haram has killed civilians and security personnel in cruel and horrofic ways (Samer, 2015).

Nigeria is politically divided into six geo-political zones. The northeast geo-political zone belongs to the Muslim north. This economically backward zone comprises of Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe states. The zone is home to Boko Haram terrorist group officially called Jamāʻat Ahl as-Sunnah lid-daʻwa wal-Jihād meaning, “People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad” (Ekereke 2013, p.5). Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, Boko Haram (which imply “western education is a sin”) first clashed with the Nigerian police in a 5-day battle in July, 2009 (Andrew 2012, p.1). This led to the death of the founder and emergence of Abubakar Shekau, as the leader of the group. Under Shekau’s leadership, Boko Haram has attacked churches, mosques, markets, schools, banks, barracks, homes and motor parks killing over 4000 thousand people and displacing close to half a million in the northeast (Crisis Group 2014, p. 2). This has had serious political and economic implications for the poverty-stricken northeast zone.

Terrorist activities have strategic implications for national economic development. It is believed that terrorist operations can disintegrate the country as well as halt economic growth (ICG 2010, p.4). Continuous terrorist attacks are capable of undermining scientific and technological security of Nigeria. Many analysts have described President  Goodluck  Jonathan’s economic reform as an effort that may yield no results due to the insecurity in the northeast (UNCTAD 2014; Utomi 2014; and Ajao, 2014). In other words, the problems with the nation’s economy are directly linked to insecurity in the northeast. For instance, President Gooduck Jonathan went to Australia for a summit with about 500 delegates and could not attract foreign investors due to insecurity in the northeastern part of the country. He also went to France with about 300 delegates and could not woo foreign investors to the country. This line of argument is supported by Pat Utomi who opined that the issue of investment is also about the issue of security. No investor will come to invest in Nigeria with the current security challenge (Pat Utomi 2014, web).

In certain parts of Nigeria, there is currently an immense humanitarian crisis caused by several factors that have forced victims to flee, thereby turning them into refugees, while others have succumbed to the conditions and are considered internally displaced persons, making the economy of the region to become underdeveloped. Writing about Boko Haram is a difficult task, as researchers have very limited access to first-hand information. Indeed, foreign and national researchers find it almost impossible to conduct fieldwork in north-eastern Nigeria, where their security cannot be guaranteed. Recently, as the core of the conflict has seemed to be moving away from Maiduguri, capital of Borno, to the confines of Nigeria, the shores of Lake Chad and along the Cameroonian border, available information on the conflict has become even scarcer. Such difficulties contrast with the pressing demand of the Nigerian public and the international community alike for intelligible analyses of the situation, particularly from an economic development perspective.

Statement of the Problem

While efforts have been made by scholars to investigate the problems of Boko Haram in Nigeria, none has done so within the purview of the economic development of the northeast states. It is, therefore, the intent of this study to examine the impact of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria with special reference to the northeast geopolitical zone. Hence,  a specific goal will be to illuminate and explore the Boko Haram terrorist group and to look into how they exert their influence on the economic development of northeastern states of  Nigeria. 

Research Objectives

The general aim of this study is to examine the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on Socio-Economic Development in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Hence,  the specific objectives are to: 

  1. Examine the effect of Boko Haram attacks on internally generated revenue of Adamawa State
  2. Examine the effect of Boko Haram attacks foreign direct investment in Adamawa State
  3. Assess the social effects of Boko Haram terrorism on the cultural growth of the people of Adamawa
  4. Examine the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on local industries and agriculture in Adamawa State, Nigeria

 Research Questions                                     

Investigate the physical manifestations of terrorist acts In Nigeria;

  1. What is the effect of Boko Haram attacks on internally generated revenue of Adamawa State?
  2. What is the effect of Boko Haram attacks foreign direct investment in Adamawa State?
  3. What are the social effects of Boko Haram terrorism on the cultural growth of the people of Adamawa?
  4. What is the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on local industries and agriculture in Adamawa State, Nigeria?

Scope of the Study 

This study covers the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on Socio-Economic Development in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study, therefore, discusses the concept of terrorism, economy and politics. The analysis explores why internal terrorism occurs in northeastern states of Nigeria, and the factors which facilitate this. The target population are those directly affected by the insurgency. The period covered is from 2009 to 2017.

Chapter Two   Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the Boko Haram Insurgency. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted. The theoretical framework will explain the tactics of Boko Haram which involve political assassinations, intimidation, assassinations of Muslim clerics, drive by shootings, kidnappings, suicide bombing, guerrilla warfare, bank robberies, attacks on churches, attacks on Muslims, attacks on universities, attacks on newspapers headquarters, and finally on international targets, most notably the UN.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses a descriptive survey type. The target population consists of all IDPs who evolved as a result of Boko Haram in Adamawa State. A questionnaire will be used as an instrument for data collection. The relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

. The sample size of this project consists of one hundred and sixty (150) respondents randomly selected camps in the table below:


    The sampling procedure adopted in this study was simple random sampling technique. This method means that individuals in the population have an equal opportunity to be selected for the sample.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research questions and one  hypothesis formulated in chapter one.  In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis will be adopted for demographic data. To test the only hypothesis in the study, Chi Square statistical tool will be adopted. Chi-square (also referred to as χ²) analysis will be used to analyze the data collected.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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IMPACT OF THE BOKO HARAM TERRORISM ON NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA, 2009-2017

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Objectives of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Scope of the Study

1.6       Limitations of the Study

1.7       Significance of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0       Introduction

2.1       Background information on Nigeria

2.2       Theoretical Framework

2.2.1    Federalism as a Theoretical Framework

2.3       National Integration

2.4       Integrative Mechanisms and the Failure of National Integration in Nigeria

2.5       Failure of National Integration and Rise of Boko Haram Terrorism

2.6       Boko Haram Insurgency

2.6.1    Dimensions of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria

2.6.2    Targets/Opponents

2.6.3.   Group Affiliations/Training

2.6.5    Finance/Funding

2.6.6    Recruitment

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0       Introduction

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Population of the Study

3.3       Sample and Sampling Procedure

3.4       Instrument of Data Collection

3.5       Validity of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7      Procedure for Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

1.1       Background to the Study

Nigeria is a large multi-ethnic country where intra-ethnic cleavages remain a critical problem and ethnic violence has erupted periodically. Among the prominent conflicts in Nigeria were: Ife-Modakeke Crisis in Osun State; Yoruba-Hausa Clashes in Sagamu, Ogun State; Eleme-Okrika Conflict in Rivers State; Zango-Kataf in Kaduna State; Tiv-Jukun in  Wukari, Taraba State; Ogoni-Adoni in Rivers State; Chamba-Kuteb in Taraba State;  Itsekiri-Ijaw/Urhobo in Delta State; Aguleri-Umuleri in Anambra State; Ijaw-Ilaje  conflict in Ondo State; Basa-Egbura in Nassarawa State; Hausa/Fulani-Sawaya in Bauchi, among others. These conflicts have provided a pattern that makes scholars to attribute their causes to greed, power and wealth distribution.

The year 2014 marked one hundred years of the British amalgamation of Northern and Southern protectorates to form one political entity which is officially known and addressed as Nigeria. Two personalities were important in Nigeria’s integration process– Lord Frederick Lugard the then Governor General and Flora Shaw (later wife of Lugard), former correspondent of the London Times, who suggested the name- Nigeria.  Ever since this merger, the polity has been characterized by ethno-religious crises which have affected national unity.

Campbell (2014) is of the view that bad governance and corruption gave rise to religious extremism, poverty, corruption and ethnic rivalry. Given this background, Boko Haram founder, Mohammed Yusuf (1970 –2009) exploited the situation by criticizing the Nigerian government of deliberate persecution of poor Muslims (Vangaurd, 2009). Since Boko Haram’s foundation in 2002, the group has attacked churches, mosques, markets, banks, telecommunication facilities, military barracks, police stations, schools, local government secretariats, among others.

National integration is defined by these political scholars as “the unification or bringing together of diversified components either at international, regional, sub-regional, national or state/local community level.” (Philip  and  Henry, 1964). In Nigeria, the various integrative mechanisms put up by different administrations include the amalgamation of 1914, the Nigerianisation policy of 1960-1966, the National Youth Service Corps, the Unity Schools, the National Language policy, the principle of Federal Character and the creation of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. All of these were meant to promote national unity in Nigeria.

Between 2009 and 2017, Nigeria witnessed the height of Boko Haram terrorism The study shall proceed to examine the rise of Boko Hara, within the framework of a failed national integration process.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Boko Haram is a transnational terrorist group whose operations in northeastern Nigeria, southern Niger and northern Cameroon have led to the killing of over 30,000 civilians and displacement of 2.3 million people. Between 2009 and 2014, Boko Haram insurgency promoted extreme poverty, food crises, mass migration, fragile governance, corruption, illicit trafficking and terrorist-linked security threats. It did not only affect people in northeastern states but had a significant impact on national integration.  While efforts have been made by scholars to investigate the problems of national integration in Nigeria, none has done so within the purview of Boko Haram terrorism. This study therefore seek to examine the impact of Boko Haram terrorism on national integration in Nigeria.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this study is to examine theImpact of Boko Haram Terrorism on National Integration in Nigeria from 2009 to 2017. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following objectives:

  • Provide a historical background to the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria;
  • Examine the concept of national integration;
  • Analyse impact of Boko Haram attacks on integrative mechanisms in Nigeria
  • Examine the impact of Boko Haram attacks on intra-ethnic relations in Nigeria

1.4       Research Questions

  • What is the historical background to the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria?
  • What does national integration mean?
  • How has Boko Haram attacks affected  integrative mechanisms in Nigeria?
  • What effect has Boko Haram attacks had on intra-ethnic relations in Nigeria?

1.5       Scope of the Study

  • This study covers theimpact of Boko Haram Terrorism on national integration in Nigeria from 2009 to 2017. Although, outside of the scope, the study made efforts to  look at the emergence of Boko Haram in 2002 as well as the patterns of attacks in northeastern states of Nigeria. Furthermore, the concept of  national integration was examined with focus on how Boko Haram insurgency has affected the implementation integrative mechanisms in Nigeria; as well as intra-ethnic relations in Nigeria.

1.6       Limitations of the Study

In producing such a work like this, the problem confronting the researcher is subjective nature of available materials. Moreso, this research work is contemporary and politically sensitive.  The researcher therefore is confronted with the problem of interpretation of the actions of Nigerian leaders towards the democratisation process of Nigeria as some of the policies initiated are still an on-ongoing process. Lastly, there is the question of time and fund which may serve as impediments to this research.

Nevertheless, these limitating factors will greatly be managed to make the research work more objective in its presentation.

1.7       Significance of the Study

The problem of national integration in Nigeria is central to this research. This study therefore is an attempt towards finding a theoretical solution to the problems militating against national integration in Nigeria. It is on this basis that this study is important for certain reasons.

First, the study is of paramount importance to decision makers and the would-be leaders for it traces the historical development of the challenges that confronted Nigeria from 2009 to 2017.

Second, it re-affirms the bold attempt made by the Nigerians in sustaining national integration through the war on terror.

Third, this research work will help in providing information on the internal factors that has continually hindered good governance in Nigeria as well as the practise of democracy.

Fourth, it is useful to scholars’ especially diplomatic historians, political scientists, economists and international relations experts who are conducting research in related field.

Finally, the political and military class will learn, through this study, the need for them to be patriotic and develop Nigeria.

The Media and Counterinsurgency Operations: Investigating the Impact of Media Surveillance on Boko Haram Terrorist Attacks, 2009-2014

 

Boko Haram is ranked the world most deadliest terrorist group, killing more people than the dreaded Islamic State (Vincent, 2016). The group has killed over 30,000 civilians since 2009 and displaced over 2,152,000 people in Nigeria, Chad and neighbouring Cameroon (IDMC, 2016). Boko Haram pride itself as Jama’a Ahl as-Sunna Li-da’wa wa-al Jihad (People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad), and fights to enforce strict Sharia on Nigerians (START, 2014). This thesis analyses government response to Boko Haram terrorist attacks within the framework of counterinsurgency operation.

Nigeria’s political landscape is complex. It is divided into six geo-political zones which comprises of Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe states. The northeast zone is home to Boko Haram terrorist group.  Yoruba and Igbos dominate the south most of whom are Christians while the north is predominantly Muslim. Since 1960 when Nigeria gained independence from Britain, the north has remained poor and impoverished. Also, the corrupt nature of the government officials and politicians paved way for the rise of condemnations and the spread of emergence of extremist ideas.

By 2002, Abubakar Shekau emerged as the de facto leader of Boko Haram group. Under Shekau’s leadership, Boko Haram carried out massive attacks mainly on churches but later spread it to barracks, police stations, motor parks, mosques, markets, schools, and banks killing people irrespective of ethnicity and religious affiliation (CrisisGroup 2014, p. 2).

From 2009 onward, the group became more violent in its spate of attacks. It carried out insurgency operations aimed at replacing the structure of government with Islamic principles. In essence, Boko Haram fought to take over the Federal Government of Nigeria (Campbell, 2013). This, they tried by taking over 20 local government areas in the northeast (Yusufu and Joel, 2015). This attempt has forced Nigeria to defend her territory with series of counterinsurgency operations.

Counterinsurgency operations has been well researched in the military circle. Counterinsurgency (COIN) is primarily a political struggle and incorporates a wide range of activities by the host nation (HN) government of which security is only one,albeit an important one. The HN government in coordination with the chief of mission (COM) should lead the COIN efforts. When the operational environment (OE) is not conducive to a civilian agency lead for the COIN effort within a specific area, the joint force commander (JFC) must be cognizant of and able to lead the unified action required for effective COIN (JP 3-24, 2013).

However, the media – both local and international – have shaped the ways and manners Boko Haram insurgents operate by reporting live events or leaking highly classified counterinsurgency operation. This area of counterinsurgency is under-researched. It is the intent of this study therefore to find out the role of the media (electronic, print and social media) in information management and national security using selected events in Nigeria as case study.

 

CHAPTERISATION

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of the Study

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Research Questions

1.5 Scope of the Study

1.6 Limitations of the Study

1.7 Significance of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1      Conceptual Discourse

2.1.1    Media Surveillance

2.1.2    National Security

2.2       Review of Existing Literature

2.2.1    Insurgency

2.2.2    Counterinsurgency

2.2.3   Counterinsurgency approaches in Nigeria

2.3       Theoretical Framework

 

CHAPTER THREE

OVERVIEW OF TERRORIST INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA  

3.1       Historical Background to Terrorist Activities in Nigeria

3.2       Dimensions of the Terrorism in Nigeria

3.2.1    Targets/Opponents

3.2.2. Group Affiliations/Training

3.3.3    Finance/Funding

3.3.4    Recruitment

3.3       Determinants of Terrorism in Nigeria

3.4       Efforts of combating Terrorism in Nigeria

 

CHAPTER FOUR

CONTENT ANALYSIS

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

 

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

 

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