EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON WOMEN IN NIGERIA

Introduction

Divorce is a phenomenon that affects the emotional, physical and social well being of the divorcees and those close to them. Most people do not enter into marriage with the intention of getting divorced. But divorce in a rapidly changing, industrialising Nigeria is fast becoming a common event, something that many will experience, or have already experienced.  In Nigeria, the divorce rate according to Alice (2012 citing the Almanac Book of Facts), was over 12,000 every year since 1975. Although, statistical records of marital instability are not compiled in Nigeria as yet. But Newspaper often reports cases of marital disruption on a weekly basis in Lagos and its environs. In Kwara State, the Ministry of Information and Culture recorded that 1,697 Marriages were registered for both the Churches and Marriage Registry from 1984-1988. During the same period (1984-88) there were 12,104 divorces (Court Case File, Child Welfare Centre and Oja-oba Area Courts, Ilorin). According to these records, the rate of divorces over marriages is at 71% approximately 7 divorces to every marriage (7:1). This shows that in Nigeria, a lot of couples did not go through the court, church or mosque to conduct their wedding but approach the court for dissolution of marriages.

Women experiencing divorce often find themselves in a situation that is not shared by friends and family.  The problems they experience are different to those experienced by other members of their community, and consequently, they may feel isolated from the community. Demographers predict that more than 45% of first-time marriages in the 21st  century will eventually end in divorce (Amato, 2010; Cherlin, 2010; Clarke-Stewart & Brentano, 2006). Research is plentiful on the topic of divorce, particularly as they affect children of the divorcees. However, there are limited data and scholarly works on the impact of divorce on women in Nigeria. It is on this basis that this study addresses the impact of divorce on women with specific reference to financial status, emotional well-being, and self-esteem.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.2.1 Conceptualizing of Divorce
2.2.2 Causes of Divorce
2.3 Divorce and women financial status
2.4 Divorce and women emotional well being
2.5 Divorce and women self esteem

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Answers to Research Hypotheses
4.2 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

REFERENCES
APPENDICES

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USE OF ADULT EDUCATION AS AN AGENT FOR SOCIAL CHANGE IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE

DOWNLOAD PROPOSAL

This study intends to investigate the use of adult education as an agent for social change in Nigeria using Lagos State as a case study. While the overall aim of the research is to empirically find out whether adult education has had significant impact on Lagos State, it will also discuss the importance of adult education as well as the challenges facing adult education in Nigeria. The research distinguishes between adult education for working adults and Adult Education as a course of study in the University. This study is centered on adult education for working adults. Using Lagos State as a case study, the research adopts descriptive research survey with focus on adult students offering various courses at Lagos State University. Questionnaire was developed to cover the research questions and hypotheses. A total of 40 respondents are to be used for the study. Chi Square statistical tool will be used for data analysis. Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking adult education to national development will be made in the final chapter.

RESEARCH OVERVIEW:

Complete Project: 65

Pages Literature Review: 2005 Upward

Data Analysis: Chi Square Statistical Tool

Research Population:

40 Adult Education Students Research

Location: Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria

Questionnaire: 20 Items x 40

Respondents References: APA Style, 6th Edition (2010).

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THE ROLE OF PARENTS TEACHERS’ ASSOCIATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN AGEGE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE

PROPOSAL

1.1       Background to the Study

Parent involvement is a salient predictor of students’ success (Million, 2003). In fact, many researchers suggest that parent involvement positively impacts students’ achievement, attendance, attitudes, behavior, graduation, and life goals (Burke, 2001 and Belenardo, 2001). There is also much evidence that these benefits cross lines of family income and parent education level. In an era characterized by tremendous emphasis on school accountability as measured by students’ performance, education reform measures are replete with components that address parent involvement (Belenardo, 2001).

The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been rigorously advocated in Nigeria in recent years, which aims at the promotion of parent involvement to enhance the educational outcomes of students. The number of PTAs has been increasing drastically. Parents Teachers Association  can  be  identified  as  very  important variable  that  have  potential  for  promoting  directly  or indirectly  student  academic  achievements  (Olatoye  and  Ogunkola,  2008).

Looking  at  the  quality  of  products  that  Nigeria’s secondary  schools  turn  out,  it  appears  the  quality  of education  received  by  the  students  is  low  in  terms  of cognitive,  affective  and  psychomotor  development  there-by  making  the  secondary  school  system  ineffective. Omoregie  (2006)  lamented  that  the  secondary  education which  is  the  pivot  of  the  entire  educational  system  in Nigeria  is  fast  loosing  relevance,  as  it  is  not  fulfilling  the national  objectives  as  set  down  in  the  National  policy  of education.

The  academic performance  of  secondary  school students  could  be attributed  to  several  factors  but  this  study  is  restricted to the role of parents teachers’ association  as  a potential  factor .  It  has  been  noticed  in  some  areas,  that  school  principals  do  not  involve the  parents  in  the  administration  of  the  schools  for fear  of being  criticized.  It  appears  in  some  cases,  parents  are  no longer  allowed  to  participate  in  school  programmes  and parents  are  no  longer  allowed  to  visit  their  children  in school regularly  to  see  how  they  fare.  There  are  instances  where some principals no  longer  make   use   of   the   Parents Teachers  Association  (PTA)  in  school  administration.  All these  tend  to  make  the  parents  handicapped  in  assisting the  school  in  the  provision  of  qualitative  education  to  its students.

According  to  Cotton  and  Wikelund  (2001),  many benefits  are  accrued  for  the  school  and  for  parents themselves  when  parents  become  involved  in  their children’s  school  activities.  They  maintained  that,  school personnel  benefit  from  the  improved  rapport  that generally  accompanies  increased  parents’  involvement.

This  rapport  is  often  expressed  in  parents’  increased willingness  to  support  school  with  their  labour  and resources  during  fund-raising  activities  or  special projects. Besides,  Henderson  (1987),  Hicks  and  Sammons (1992)  and  Hillman  and  Mortimore  (1995)  had  showed  in their  various  studies  that  parental  presence  in  the  school activities  and  participation  in  committees’  events  and other  activities  all  had  positive  effects  on  achievement.

Adewuyi  (2002)  also  submitted  that  active  parent  involvement and positive home-school-community relations have been  shown  to  positively  influence  effective  schooling and students’ achievement. Ajayi  (1999)  also  posited  that,  effective  administration of  schools  could  be  hampered  where  the  PTA  is  not performing  its  roles  as  expected.  Also,  Ajayi  (2007) posited  that,  the  school  and  the  community  are interdependent  and  interrelated  and  for  the  relationship between  them  to  be  meaningful,  worthwhile  and productive,  they  must  be  willing  to  assist  each  other  to achieve  their  respective  goals  in  atmosphere  of  love, mutual trust and cooperation.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

As educators struggle to identify and maximize the use of every resource to improve students’ performance, it is increasingly important that they establish and maintain high levels of parent involvement in their schools. Although parent involvement at the elementary-school level has been studied extensively, more research is needed “to determine why there is a decrease of involvement as the child advances to higher grades” (Smith, 2001, p. 149). The purpose of this  study was to develop a better understanding of the factors that significantly affect the level of parent involvement during the middle-school years.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purposes of this study are:

  1.  To reveal parents’ and teachers’ perceptions towards the PTA in achieving its goals,
  2.  To examine the impact of parent involvement in the academic performance of  students  in the secondary school
  3. To explore factors that have been perceived to promote or inhibit the parents’ involvement in the academic process of students in secondary school
  4. To investigate  the  extent  of  parents’ involvement  in  school  administration  and  its effect on the development of secondary school students.

1.4       Research Questions

  1.  Are there any difference between the perceptions of parents and teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals?
  2.  To what extent does parent involvement in the academic process affect their performance in secondary school?
  3. What factors have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of students in secondary school?
  4. To what extent does parents’ involvement in  school  administration  effect  the development of secondary school students?

 1.5       Research Hypothesis

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1.6       Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help Parents Teachers Association in achieving its school goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their own PTAs, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school.

In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with  many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the rationales and goals set by their own PTAs.

 1.7       Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on the role of Parents Teachers Association in the development of secondary school students in some selected schools in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State. This research work  covers all public secondary schools students in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.

1.8  Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary school in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State as the title suggest.

1.9       Definition of Terms

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