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The Influence of Home Environment on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nigeria

Abstract

This study examined the impact of parental involvement on the academic performance of secondary school students using some selected schools in Ago-Iwoye Metropolis, an area of Ogun State as case study. Forty respondents comprising twenty students and twenty parents were randomly selected from the study area. Two hypotheses were developed to test the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school. Questionnaire was used to gather data on gender, age, students’ study skills, socio-economic status of parents, and family description. To determine parenting style, parents completed the Parental Involvement and Dimension Questionnaire. Data was analyzed using chi square. Also, as hypothesized, academic performance of students in the selected schools was significantly positively correlated with a good home environment in the students’ education. The research contends that parental involvement at all grade levels can assist in the academic and behavioral performance of students. Hence, it is suggested that similar research with relevant research methodology should be used in carrying out research in other states of the Federation to ascertain the degree of conformity which this research have on the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1   Background to the Study                        

                   There have been several studies done within and outside Nigeria on the effects of home environment as well as the socio-economic status of parents on the academic achievement of students (Ajila  & Olutola,  2007; Uwaifo, 2012).  Research has found many factors that influence how well a student does in school and the amount of confidence the students have for themselves. However, in Nigeria, like other growing economies, families are finding it more difficult to stay connected with their children’s education. This is most common to families living in mega cities such as Lagos where both parents work outside of the home. Carmen (2007) noted that the extended family has become significantly less extended as mobility has increased. Parents are becoming isolated from their children and finding it difficult to keep a careful watch on what needs to be done to help them succeed in school. Many families are not even led by a parent, but by a grandparent, guardian, or some other adult.

                Prior to this time, in what is sometimes called a traditional Nigerian family environment, parents were able to monitor the school work of their children carefully  and actively participated in Parents-Teachers Associations purposely to monitor the progress of their children. Report cards were valued and trusted in the home as an accurate reflection of academic achievement. Parents were able to keep in touch with the school and the life of their children in the school, and to monitor success or lack thereof. When children came home from school, homework was completed, assignments finished, and other school works were done.

            With the changes in family life and indeed in societal makeup, schools are now finding it increasingly difficult to keep parents informed of and  actively engaged in the day-to-day progress of their children (Deslandes & Bertrand,  2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is not there, because the parents are not home to insist that students complete their assignments.

         It must be noted that while there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to progress academically, Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students academic performance. The family background of the student, however is the most important factor that affects the student’s academic performance. In view of this, Hussain (2006) noted that secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor shows how important the family is to academic achievement of students in secondary schools as well as the centrality of parents to the academic performance of students.

             Influence of home environment in students’ education has been a major topic of study for the later part of the twentieth century.  Baumrind (1971) has been credited for defining three specific parental involvement and their consequences for children. These are (a) authoritative, (b) authoritarian, and (c) permissive involvement of parents in children’s schooling based on levels of warmth and control used by the parent in disciplining the child.  According to Baumrind (1991), parental involvement is meant to capture normal variations in parents attempts to socialize children.  Parental involvement can be both supportive and unsupportive in their tone, both of which affect developmental outcomes and consequences to personality development. Baumrind described how parental involvement affect measures of competence, achievement, and social development.

         Although, students are primarily the ones for whom curricula are designed, textbooks are written, and schools built, parents are primarily the ones held responsible for preparing students for learning – preparation physically, psychologically, behaviorally, attitudinally, emotionally, and motivationally, just to name a few.

        Over the years, numerous theories and associated constructs have been formulated and have evolved to describe and explain these two independent variables, that is, home environment and students academic performance. For example, the behavioral learning theories of Thorndike, Watson, Skinner and, Hull, the cognitive learning theories of Piaget, Kolhberg, and Vygotsky, and the social learning theories of Bandura, have been used to pose and answer questions about students and parents. Dornbusch (1996), found empirical evidence of what most parents and educators know from experience – that parents have a strong influence on secondary school students.

        Steinberg and his colleagues conducted surveys, focus groups, and individual interviews with high school students and parents to better understand how parents, peers and communities influence students’ commitment to school.  The 10-year longitudinal study collected data from 20,000 students and 500 parents in nine ethnically diverse school and communities.  These researchers found that parents’ behaviors send clear and decisive messages about their thoughts and feelings on the importance of schooling.  They also found that parenting style helps or hinders a child’s engagement in school; that encouraging a child to do well in school or insisting that homework be completed were important forms of promoting engagement. These three tenets – communication, influence, and parenting style – are subsets of a larger domain, parental involvement.

           The aforementioned studies are not the only ones that speak to the issue of parenting involvement, but, here, serve only as a way of introducing the broader sphere. In this present study, home environment was studied in reference to its influence on the academic performance of students  in secondary school.

 1.2 Statement of the Problem

        Although, scholars have identified the correlation between parental influences on children academic performance in the primary school, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their academics. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between home environment, with particular reference to parenting style and socio-economic status of parents; and secondary school students’ academic performance.

 1.3. Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study was to examine the influence of home environment on students’ academic performance. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school;
  2. Examine factors determining the  home environment;
  3. Investigate the effects of the socio-economic status of parents on student’s academic performance;
  4. Examine the perceptions of students towards their parents in regards to parenting style and their academic performance.

1.4    Research Questions

  1. What relationship exists between the type of parental involvement and secondary school student academic achievement?

2.  Do socio-economic and educational background of parents affect their involvement in their children in secondary schools?

3       Do parenting style and parental involvement directly affect students academic performance?

4 Do perceptions of students about their parents affect their academic performance?

 1.5 Research Hypotheses

H01: There is no statistically significant difference between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school.

H02: There is no statistically significant difference between socio-economic and educational background of parents and involvement in their children’s education

 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study was limited by a convenience sample of approximately 20 (twenty) students from five secondary schools and 20 (twenty) parents from Ago-Iwoye Metropolis In Ogun State.

Apart from the shortage of fund and time frame, the following limits were found in the study:

1.  It is recognized that not every parent will fit neatly into a particular parenting style.  These parent-child pairs will be discarded from the sample.

2.  Some children will rate their parents as fair when in actuality they are not, therefore there will be some bias in the parents nominations.

3.  It is recognized that a parenting style may be chosen by a family due need rather than desire.

4.  The study was limited to the students whose parents gave consent for their participation, as well as, receiving the students’ assent.

5.  The accuracy of the data was limited by the skills of the researcher and validity of the tests administered.

 

1.7     Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic performance. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It has provide empirical evidence to schools, parents, and students about the nature of parental involvement and how it affects the academic performance of students
  2. It offers a reference for future research that might investigate the same variables.

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms

Home Environment: Home environment refers to aspects of peoples domestic lives that contribute to their living conditions. These factors may be physical (poverty, psychological conditions due to parenting; social circumstances (single parenting) or wider cultural patterns of life related to the location (Urban or rural environments).

Parent:  The term parent as used in this study includes, in addition to a natural  parent, a legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis, such as a grandparent or  stepparent with whom the child lives, or a person who is legally responsible for a child’s welfare.

 Parental Involvement: any form of verbal or non-verbal communication or assistance in reference to a child’s homework.

 Parenting Style: The overall emotional climate of the parent-child relationship- an affective context of sorts that sets the tone for the parents interactions with the child.

 Student academic achievement: This term refers to the student’s overall average  in science, social studies, English, and math, expressed as a percent grade. 

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Impact of Ethnic Militancy and Internal Terrorism on Nigeria’s National Security, 1999 to 2012

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background to the Study

In a time of terror, in the face of terrorism, the Nigerian state articulates itself as a domain of security for the populace. The presidency, lawmakers and security agencies openly condemns terrorist attacks as illegitimate action used by non-state actors. Accordingly, the Nigerian government, through the National Assembly (NASS) embarked on a legislative pathway to criminalise terrorism via the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (Establishment) Act in 2002. However, the inchoate nature of counterterrorism provisions in the Act led to the exploration of a more comprehensive legal framework, and in turn to the presentation of the Prevention of Terrorism Bill to the Senate in 2006 (Isaac, 2011: 42). Five years later, the Terrorism Prevention Act of 2011, was passed by the Senate and the House on June, 1, 2011 and on June 2, 2011, it was forwarded by the Clerk of the National Assembly to President Goodluck Jonathan who signed it to law on June 3, 2011 (The Punch Newspaper, November 22, 2012).

Since 2009, internal terrorism in Nigeria moved from ethnic militancy to suicide bombing, a situation that has claimed over 3,000 lives, led to the declaration of state of emergency in five northern states, and the sack of the Defence  Minister,  Police  Chief  and  National  Security  Adviser (Olalekan, 2012: 1). The erstwhile unpopular national phenomenon  of  suicide  bombing  have  suddenly  become  dominant  in  the country,  with  several  attacks  on  the  elected  political  leaders  and  traditional rulers  in  the  North – Eastern region of Nigeria; the nation’s capital, Abuja; the  commercial  city  of  Kano  in  North-western  axis  and  formerly  serene Plateau State in North – Central region (Tony and Kolade, 2012: 1)..

The nature of internal terrorism in Nigeria assumed international outlook, with the bombing of the UN Building at Abuja on Friday, 26 August 2011 which killed at least 21 and wounded 60 people. The international community grieved as  suicide  bombing  rocked  the  St. Theresa’s Catholic Church, Madalla, Niger  State,  on  Christmas  Day  killing  innocent  worshippers (Olalekan, 2012: 23). These are aside from the spate of bombings of several other churches, public  infrastructures  and  civilian  gatherings  in  Kano,  Kaduna,  Okene,  and other local government councils in the northern parts of the country.

According  to  the  United  States Department’s Global Report on Terrorism, Nigeria ranked 2nd with 593 deaths in 2011 from terrorist killings on the African continent, second to only the failed state of Somalia. On the global level, Nigeria was placed 5th  in the  ranking  of  casualties (Country Report on Terrorism, 2010).

Nigeria  is  not  a  stranger  to  terrorism,  having  experienced  the activities  of  the  extremist  Maitatsine  sect  movement  that  became  violent  in the early 1980s during the regime of the first democratically-elected civilian government  of  Alhaji  Shehu  Shagari.  The  Yan  Tatsine  (followers  of Maitatsine)  was  actually  a  quasi-Muslim  fringe  group  that  preached  Islamic doctrines  that  were  contrary  to  the  teachings  of  the  orthodox  Islamic  and societal  leadership.  Muhammadu  Marwa  Maitatsine,  the  leader  of  the  sect, was  a  Muslim  scholar  from  Marwa  town  in  Northern  Cameroun  who migrated to Kano in Nigeria (Danjibo, 2000: 3). The ideology of the Maitatsine sect  was  appealing  to  the  poverty  –  stricken  youths  who  sought  an opportunity  to  confront  the  conservative  traditional  Islamic  rulership  and State  governments.  The  directive  by  the  federal  government  to  the  Police Force  to  crush  the  movement,  which  had  large  followership  of  the unemployed  youths,  led  to  clashes  with  the  police  in  Kano.

Encouraged by the ‘defeat’ of the police,  the sect marched in Kano city chanting “Yau zamu sha jinni”, meaning “today we shall drink blood” in Hausa. By December 19, 1980 the sect took over strategic places in Kano city including the Fagge mosque, some schools, a cinema house and the Sabon Gari market. For eleven days, the police was unable to bring to control the sectarian riots. When the situation was getting out of control, ex-President Shehu Shagari had to invite the Nigeria Army to intervene. It took the army two days to dislodge the sect while their leader was killed in the operation. More than 1,000 members of the sect  were arrested and detained in prison where they received agonizing treatment from the police. The crisis lasted for 11 days, claimed the lives of more than 4,179 people and hundreds of houses and shops were either torched or destroyed (Danjibo, 2000). This  religious  crisis,  which  later  took  a denominational  dimension  in  Zaria  with  the  Muslims  directing  their  attacks on Christians and their property, later spread to Maiduguri, Yola, Bauchi and Gombe,  in  the  north-eastern  parts  of  Nigeria.  The  leader  of  the  sect  was killed in the uprising.

Thus, national security becomes the language in and through which terrorism is mediated as a threat which invariably make the state to create and implement national security policies. It is not only international or global terrorism that threatens Nigeria’s security, internal terrorism is equally perceived to threaten directly  the national security of Nigeria. In other words, the threat requires the Nigerian government to protect the  citizens but also to defend the constitution and  its  national interests, including its interests and allies abroad.

Seen as the  systematic  use  of  violence,  or  the  threat  of  violence,  against governments  or  individuals  to  attain  a  socio-political  objective, terrorism has been practised throughout history and throughout the world.  Terrorism  is  a  long-standing  political  and  religious  strategy  that  has  gained  renewed international  awareness  following  the  devastating  and  unprecedented  attacks  in  the United States (US) on the 11th September 2001 (9/11). Although the events of that day have come to represent a turning point in international concern with the issue, the 9/11 attacks were not isolated events. Nor did these events reflect an unexpected new threat; they  were  the  representative  reaffirmation  of  a  tendency  that  had  been  apparent for several  years.  Where  terror  had  previously  been  a  painful  accessory  to  anarchism, liberation wars, counter-insurgency campaigns and the battlefields of the Cold War; the events of that day took terrorism to a new, global level.

Historically, no terrorist group has ever emerged in a vacuum; there are dynamic  contexts—political,  social,  economic,  temporal,  spatial,  even religious—that must be taken into account. Thus, a considerable amount of emphasis is placed on identifying the array of environmental conditions and grievances among members of the local population that facilitated opportunities for internal terrorism in Nigeria to muster support and orchestrate acts of political violence. The government of Nigeria has struggled to deal effectively with these grievances and sources of tension throughout the country, and there is a pervasive belief particularly among northern Nigerians that the government continually fails to address critical needs of those who aspire for a better future. While resources are surely constrained, it is the inequitable distribution of those resources, and the widely acknowledged levels of corruption among elites, that detract from the government’s effectiveness. In turn, patronage and corruption fuels a general perception that government officials (to include law enforcement) cannot be

trusted, and this further undermines the government’s ability to influence the behavior of local community members in positive directions, away from the lure of radical extremist ideologies like that of Boko Haram.

1.2       Statement of the Problem               

Internal or domestic terrorism has a long history in Nigeria. Both the southern and northern parts of the country have experienced acts of terrorism.  Some of the groups that posed the greatest challenge to Nigeria’s security between 1999 and 2012 include Movement for Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND), Oodua People’s Congress (OPC), Bakassi Boys, Boko Haram, among others.  These groups adopted various strategies which included arson,  kidnapping,  extra-judicial  killings,  looting,  unlawful  detention, disappearances, and at worst, suicide bombing. While some of these groups receive considerable support from the local people, the fact is that their tactics sometimes constitute terrorism and pose a special challenge to Nigerian military.

Since  the  return  to  civil  rule  in  1999,  Nigeria  has  been  battling  with  series  of  violent agitations from various geo-political zones in the country. These violent agitations which have taken  terror  dimensions  have  contributed  to  national  security  threat  that  is  capable  of disintegrating  the  country.  Terrorists’  attacks  have  resulted  in  the  killings  of  hundreds  of people and wanton destruction of property that worth billions of naira through bombings.

The strategic implication of these terrorist acts on Nigeria’s national security is the major thrust of this thesis. While literature abound on the terms ‘terrorism’, ‘national security’, more research is needed to unravel the connection between terrorism and national security in Nigeria. Outright confrontation with police and military officers,  violent attacks on the populace,  pipeline  vandalisation,  bombing  of  oil  installation,  armed  resistance against the agents of the Nigerian state and the transnational oil companies operating in the region, kidnapping and hostage taking have serious strategic implication for Nigeria in the international community. Since the activities of these terrorist groups especially since 1999 have not only constituted a major security threat to  the nation, but has also make the country one of the most dangerous place to live in the world. The activities of this sect are capable of disintegrating the country. Thus, the need to find lasting solution to the grievance of these groups is very paramount

This thesis  hopes  to  shed  light  on  why  internal terrorism arose as well as its implication for Nigeria in the 21st century.  Further,  this  thesis  will  look  at  the  effects  of  their  coming  into  being  on democratic  consolidation.  It  is  hoped   that  this  thesis  will  contribute  to  the  future  work  on resolving  Nigerian  conflict  by  putting  forth  a  new  perspective  based  on  using  a  holistic perspective

1.2              Research Questions                                     

By explaining how   the militias as well as terrorist groups came  into being,  and by showing that they posed serious threat to national security, the central research questions are:

  1. How did ethnic militias and terrorist groups emerge?
  2. What is the nature of their operations?
  3. Have they had any significant impact on Nigerians?
  4. Have their patterns of attacks affected the Nigerian political economy?
  5. Have they become a major threat to the security forces?
  6. Have their activities led to internalization of terrorism in Nigeria?
  7. Could their dangerous activities undermine Nigeria’s national security?

1.4       Purpose of the Study                       

In  order  to  formulate  viable  long  term  solutions  to  combat  terrorism in  Nigeria,  it  is  necessary  to  investigate  the  root  causes  of  internal terrorism in the country.  Investigating  the  political,  economic,  social  and  environmental  causes  of

internal terrorism  will  be  the  primary  objective  of  this  study.  Also,  the correlation  between  internal terrorism and national security will be investigated.

Hence,  a  specific  objective  will  be  to  illuminate  and  explore  the  concept  of  internal terrorists and to look into how they influence the Nigerian society.

Also the study will investigate the physical manifestations of terrorist acts from 1999 to 2012. Establishing  the  modus  operandi  of  terrorist groups  will  enable  relevant  actors  to  establish  viable short term solutions to combat internal terrorism.

Lastly, the likelihood of terrorism spreading to other parts of Africa will be investigated.

1.5       Scope of the Study 

The study examines internal security and its strategic implication for national security in Nigeria. The research begins from 1999, a year which is significant in Nigerian history as it ushered in the Fourth Republic under the democratically elected government of President Olusegun Obasanjo. The research terminates in 2012 as much of the terrorist activities up to date featured between 2009 and 2012. To this, the research analyse  the  concept  of  internal  terrorism and national security. The  analysis  will  explore  why  internal  terrorism occurs in Nigeria, and the factors which facilitate this. Hence, the study will focus  on  aspects  such  as  the  historical  background  of  internal terrorism in Nigeria; the Nigerian security environment;  and  the counter-terrorist  policies  which  the Nigerian government pursued to maintain national security from 1999 to 2012.

1.6       Limitations of the Study

In producing such a work like this, the problem confronting the researcher is not the scarcity of materials but its availability some of which are bias in their presentation. Moreso, this research work is contemporary and politically sensitive.  The researcher therefore is confronted with the problem of interpretation of the actions of terrorist groups as well as counter-terrorist approach of the Nigerian government as some of the policies initiated are still an on-ongoing process.

            Finally, there is the question of time and fund which may serve as impediments to this research.  Nevertheless, these limitating factors will greatly be managed to make the research work more objective in its presentation.

1.7       Significance of the Study               

The problem of internal terrorism and its implication for national security in Nigeria is central to this research. It analyses the implication of internal terrorism for Nigeria in the international community. It is on this basis that this study is important for certain reasons.

First, the study is of paramount importance to decision makers and the citizens for it traces the historical development of internal terrorism in Nigeria, emphasizing how corruption, ethno-politics, resource control, bad governance, poverty, coups and counter coups, etc have all added to the rise of internal terrorism in Nigeria.

Second, the importance of Nigeria as a global source of energy inevitably has resulted in a significant international presence in the country; in particular the USA, China and Britain who depend on Nigeria for a large part of their oil imports have a significant political and economic presence. It is no coincidence that these countries in particular have been pivotal  to  the  counterterrorism  policies  of  Nigeria  and  in  training  their  military  for specific counterterrorism functions. Thus the international involvement of stakeholders in  internal terrorism in  Nigeria becomes critical to this study as it raised  more  questions  about  who  counter-terrorism policies  are  enacted  for,  for  what  purpose. In essence, the research will provoke further questions on internal terrorism in Nigeria.

Third, this research work will help in providing information on the internal factors that affects counter-terrorism in Nigeria, and what it holds for other countries undergoing the challenges of internal terrorism. With successful amnesties and dialogue having taken place in the Niger Delta with the Movement for the Emancipation  of  the  Niger  Delta  (MEND) and the recent ceasefire announcement of the Boko Haram terrorist group, it means that internal terrorism could be won by the government through peaceful dialogue.

Fourth, it is useful to scholars’ especially diplomatic historians, political scientists, economists and international relations experts who are conducting research in related fields.

Finally, the political and military class will learn, through this study, the need for them to be patriotic.

1.8       Research Methodology

Historical research method was used in carrying out this study. A critical examination of the dramatic evolution of ethnic militant groups to the rise of a more violent Boko Haram, was analyzed using findings from both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include written documents such as government publications, letters, correspondence, documentaries and newspapers. Moreover, this study depended on secondary sources such as books, journals, conference proceedings and internet sources which are to be explored to enrich this work.

Furthermore, this research work depended largely on archival materials to gather relevant materials on the study. Field trips will also be employed to access information from the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs and other centres in order to get relevant information regarding the research work.

This was complemented using other research instruments. The research instruments used were questionnaires and purposive sampling. The data gathered through the questionnaire were analysed using the frequency of responses and percentages while the outcome from data were presented in form of tables. Each table was analysed using descriptive analytical method. Interpretations and useful inferences were drawn from the analysis which formed the basis of conclusion and recommendations.

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SCHOOL LOCATIONAL VARIABLES AS DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 1.1              Background to the Study

 The relationship between school location and school effectiveness has been a perplexing one for educators.  Studies have found that the physical environment, locality of school in rural or urban area, socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, ethnic location of the school, overcrowded classrooms built near market centres, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, school plant planning, among others, are all school locational variables that significantly affect school effectiveness (Adewuyi, 2002; Ahmed,  2003; and Ijeoma, 2007)

School effectiveness in this context refers to the extent to which schools are able to accomplish their pre-determined objectives. School effectiveness transcends beyond students passing final examinations. It also encompasses students’ attainment in other domains of learning (the affective and the psychomotor domains). According to Bandele (2002), these other domains, apart from having influence on the cognitive achievement, also make the beneficiary of the education system live a fulfilled life and contribute meaningfully to the development of the society.

School effectiveness research started in the mid-1960s with the Coleman Report (Coleman et al. 1966) in the United States. Since then, there are three distinct but  inter-related  branches  of  school  effectiveness  research,  namely,  (a)  school  effects research – i.e.  scientific  properties  of  school  effects,  e.g.  the  size  of  school  effects,  (b) effective schools research – i.e. process oriented study of characteristics of effective schools, and  (c)  school  improvement  research – focusing  and  limiting  its  test  of  specific  models  of effective schools. It must be noted that most of school effectiveness research studies have traditionally come from USA, UK and some continental European countries, in particular, the Netherlands. Much is yet to be examined on the effects of school locational factors on school effectiveness in Nigeria.

Nigeria as a nation strives to experience real growth and development. This requires a clearly defined development strategy that allows intensive utilization of resources which is endowed. These resources are the various school physical facilities that are indispensable in the educational process. They include the sitting, the building and physical equipment, recreation places for the achievement of educational objectives (Oluchuckwu, 2000).

School location with its attendant features of instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in the teaching-learning process. The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location in the locality, within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These factors can adversely affect student behavior and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student.

Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic performance of students.

Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with student-teacher ratio, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in the classroom with student health problems, student behavior, and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2001; Johnson, 2001; Lyons, 2001;Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement these studies, the present research examines the aforementioned areas of school locational factors such as location of the school itself, class size, school facilities, and school population affect the effectiveness of schools in Nigeria.

 Statement of the Problem

Emphasizing the importance of school location  to school effectiveness started with Coleman’s Report (Coleman et al. 1966) in the United States. Since then, various researches have been conducted on school effectiveness. These researches, however, were centred on the developed countries. With the exception of few works (Isaac  et al, 2010; Adewuyi, 2002; Ahmed,  2003; and Ijeoma, 2007), no serious attempt has been made to study how  school locational factors serve as determinants of school effectiveness in Nigerian secondary schools. It is on this basis that the present study seeks to unravel how location of the school itself, class size, school facilities, and school organization are structurally significant to an effective school.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The purposes of this study are:

  1. To examine the relationship between school location and school effectiveness
  2. To examine the impact of school facilities on the effectiveness of schools
  3. To explore factors such as class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibit students learning in the academic process of students in secondary school
  4. To investigate the extent to which school organization affects the effectiveness of the school

1.4     Research Questions

  1.    Is there any relationship between school location and school effectiveness?
  2.     To what extent do school facilities affect school effectiveness?
  3.   What effect does class size has on the academic performance of students in secondary school?
  4.  To what extent does school organization has on the effectiveness of the school?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

Ho1      There is no significant difference between school location and school effectiveness

Ho2      There is no significant difference between school facilities and school effectiveness

Ho3      There is no significant difference between class size and academic performance  of students

Ho4      There is no significant difference between school organization and school effectiveness

 

1.6     Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that can aid the school to be effective in helping students to achieve their goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing these recommended factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with  many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic performance of student in secondary school.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on school locational factors as determinants ofschool effectiveness. This research work covers all public secondary schools students in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.

 1.8  Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary school in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State as the scope of the study suggest.

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