PARENTS’ OCCUPATION, FAMILY SIZE AND HOME LOCATION AS PREDICTORS OF STUDENTS’ TRUANCY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA

Research Overview

The problem of truancy in schools has persisted over the years. These acts have either been carried out individually by the students or as a group which has resulted into disruption of school activities. There is no doubt that students’ truancy generally militates against effective teaching and learning and production of useful acceptable members of the society. This study seeks to examine the place of parental occupation, family size and home location as factors that predict students’ truancy in secondary schools.

 Purpose of the study

The general purpose of this study is to investigate parents’ occupation, family size and home location as predictors of students’ truancy in secondary schools in Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:

i.  Find out the extent to which parent socio-economic background predict truancy among students.

ii. Examine whether large family size serve as producing agents of truancy

iii. Investigate the relationship between location of the home and truancy among students

iv. Discuss the extent to which peer-group influence has contributed to truancy among secondary school students?

v. Identify and discuss preventive measures to curb truancy among students in Nigeria.

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Social Media Usage as Predictor of Examination Malpractices among Students in Nigeria

PROPOSAL

1.1 Background to the Study

Scholars have indentified age of the student (Achio, 2012);gender of the student (Nwafor, 2009); as well as test anxiety (Omotere, 2011) as traditional predictors of examination malpractices among students. Other predictors of examination malpractices that have equally received the attention of scholars include peer group pressure, poor study habit, and fear of failure. However, social media has received little or no attention by scholars.

Social media is defined as “the relationships that exist between network of people” (Qingya, Wei & Yu, 2011: 3). Social media emerged as a term frequently used to describe different types of electronic communication platforms. The availability of high speed internet broadband connection with massive use of desktop computers, laptops, e-readers, tablets and smart phones enable millions of undergraduates to actively engage in social networking, text messaging, blogging, content sharing, online learning, and much more.

Social media, as defined by Bryer and Zavatarro (2011: 327), “are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration, and enable deliberation across stakeholders”. These technologies now include blogs, wikis, media (audio, photo, video, text) sharing tools, networking platforms, and virtual worlds. Social Media Online (2011) defines social media as primarily internet-and mobile-based tools for sharing and discussing information by users. The term, according to Andreas and Michael (2010: 61), refers to “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.” Web 2.0 was coined by  Darcy DiNucci in 1999 to describe interactive social websites which allow users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue.

A growing number of Nigerian scholars agree that addiction to social media sites are potentially a disruptive technology to students’ academic work in higher education. Among them is Oluwatoyin (2011: 13) who surveyed 1,860 Facebook users from the Lagos State University and found that most of the students could not get cumulative grade point average (CGPA) above 3.50 because they’ve spent large part of their time on social media than on their home work and study time which could contribute to higher grade. Oluwatoyin’s findings is further supported by Ajewole and Fasola (2011: 69) whose study of 884 students from eight higher institutions in Oyo State showed that majority of them spend more time on social media at the detriment of their studies.

This view is however rejected by some researchers who acknowledge that social media sites not only re-engage learners with their studies but also enhance their academic performance. For instance, Onyeka, Sajoh & Bulus (2013:39) argue that the frequent use of social media sites has no negative effect on the students’ studies. In the same vein, Ogedebe, Emmanuel & Musa (2012: 788) posited that Facebook usage does not have adverse effect on the academic work of students in the Universities.

While the present study is not burdened with the direct effect of social media usage on undergraduates’ CGPA, its primary focus is centered how social media usage predicts examination malpractices among students.

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 1.2       Statement of the problem

Many educators and educationists such Adesina (2006), Anwabor (2006), Bamwo (2006) and Jekayinfa (2006) have written on many aspects of examination dishonesty in the Nigerian education system. However, none of them has written on how the usage of social media affects examination fraud. They also did not discuss how the introduction of ICT tools can help curb examination fraud in Nigeria. This study has attempted to fill that gap.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to examine the implication of social media usage on examination malpractice among students in Nigeria. Specifically, the study will:

 i.            Examine the social of social media tools on students’ study time.

 ii.        To ascertain the reasons why social media is adopted by student        for examination malpractice.

 iii.            Investigate strategies which students’ apply when using social media for examination malpractice.

 iv.            To ascertain the social media tools that are mostly adopted for examination malpractice

1.4       Research questions

 i.            Which social media tool is the most potent that is often adopted by students for malpractice?

  ii.            Has social media usage affected students’ reading schedules?

iii.            What strategies are adopted by students when using the social media for examination malpractice?

1.5   Research hypothesis

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1.6       Scope of the study

This research work is based on social media as predictor of examination malpractice among student. The population consists of 200 students in four faculties at Olabisi Onabanjo University (OOU). Specifically, the literature discusses the variables vis-à-vis examination malpractices prevalent among students. It does not however extend to all the methods used by students to carry out examination malpractices but are based on the use of social media tools for exam fraud.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This research work will suggest to the government, the need to expand the scope of their policies on examination malpractice to make provision for examination malpractices that are perpetrated through social media tools.

It will further enlighten the school management and supervisors to the growing trend of social media usage and how it is been used for examination malpractices and how to curb their students’ from indulging it to perpetrate malpractice.

It will enlighten parents on the need for them to be sensitive, pay attention, to caution and regulate the manner in which their children use social media tools which will help to reduce the prevalence of examination malpractice.

Definition of Terms

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CAUSES OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES

There are evidences that many students engage in examination malpractices. We have successfully conducted a study on the causes of examination malpractices among students.  “Age, Sex And Test Anxiety As Predictors Of Examination Malpractices Among Secondary School Students” 

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INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON UNDERGRADUATES’ PERCEPTION OF COURTSHIP AND ITS’ RELATIONSHIP WITH PRE-MARITAL SEX

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the influence of demographic factors on undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex using the University of Abuja, Abuja as case study. Demographic factors identified in the study were family background, university environment, peers and social media. These factors were examined to determine their influence on the perception of undergraduates‘ toward courtship and pre-marital sex. Questionnaire was constructed to test the hypotheses formulated. Simple percentage statistical tool was employed to analyse the variables. Based on the findings, it was discovered that family background, peers, university environment and social media have direct impact on students’ perception of courtship and subsequently, their engagement in risky sexual behaviours. Recommendations were made to address the problems associated with pre-marital sex among undergraduates in Nigeria.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 1.1       Background to the Study

University campuses offer a unique environment for students either to pursue a traditional courtship style or engage in a courtship style that is driven by pre-marital sexual intercourse. Several studies have been carried out on what influences students choice of courtship style in the university (Bogle, 2008; Glenn & Marquardt, 2001; and Knudson-Martin and Mahoney, 2009). These studies indicate that young men and women are more frequently engaging in casual sex or what is known as ‘campus courtship’ or ‘hooking up’ than the traditional courtship where lovers are not to engage in pre-marital sex. Hooking up carries a level of ambiguity but has been generally defined as a sexual encounter, anything from kissing to having sex, especially between young men and women without implying any marital commitment.

The large percentage of divorces each year, non-marital pregnancies and pre-marital sex has all dramatically changed the traditional family structure. Courtship which was a trend that has been present for decades in Nigeria became popular as a result of western education. Courtship among undergraduates has changed the realm of male and female interaction as it used to be in the traditional African society. Prior to the colonial era, men had to call upon women and be invited to visit the woman’s home under strict supervision from the family. This type of courtship was a form of traditional courtship that had very clearly delineated guidelines that, men and women were expected to follow. However, western education has totally redefined how young men and women court before getting married. The university environment provides the opportunity for young individuals to go out to places away from the watchful eyes of the family and community members and engage in another kind of campus courtship popularly known as ‘hooking up’.

Several demographic factors such as the mass media, the social media, internet, peers, changing family traditions, money, the university environment, among others affects how young men and women participate in courtship alongside modern social changes. The influence of these demographic factors on undergraduates’ sexual behavior, particularly in the areas of courtship and its relationship with premarital sex, deserves scholarly attention.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Literature regarding the impact of demographic factors on undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex is limited. This research seeks to fill the vacuum by examining whether demographic factors with special reference to peers, university environment, family background and the social media have any significant effect on undergraduates’ perceptions of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex.

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the influence of demographic factors on the perceptions of undergraduates towards courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex. The general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Assess undergraduates’ perceptions of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex
  2. Examine undergraduates’ perceptions of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex
  3. Investigate how the family background influence the perception of university students towards courtship
  4. Examine how the social media influence the perception of university students towards courtship
  5. Examine how the university environment influence the perception of university students towards courtship
  6. Examine how peers influence the perception of university students towards courtship

1.4       Justification of the Study

This study proposes to investigate undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex. This is justified because perceptions are known to affect behavior. Undergraduates’ sexual behavior, especially in relation to pre-marital sex could be as a result of their perceptions toward courtship. The study therefore sets out to investigate how demographic factors influence this perception through the existing literature and the testing of the formulated hypotheses.

 1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions will be addressed by this study:

i.  To what extent does undergraduates’ perception of courtship affect their desire to engage in pre-marital sex?

ii.     Would there be any significant relationship between family background and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

iii.      Does the university environment have any impact on undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

iv.        Would there be any significant relationship between the university environment and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

v.        Would there be any significant relationship between social media and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

vi.            Would there be any significant relationship between peers and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

1.6       Research Hypotheses

Ho1 There is no significant difference between undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex.

Ho2 There is no significant difference between family background and undergraduates’ perception of courtship

Ho3 There is no significant difference between university environment and undergraduates’ perception of courtship

Ho4 There is no significant difference between social media and undergraduates’ perception of courtship

 1.7   Significance of the Study

A major concern in Nigerian universities today is the issue of unwanted pregnancy, high rate of abortion, reported cases of HIV/AIDS, etc all of which negatively affects the smooth running of individual academic programme. One of the ways to find solution to this problem is to address the issue of students’ perception of courtship and pre-marital sex. Going by this, it becomes important to discuss the perception of young adults toward courtship and subsequently pre-marital sex.

The study is therefore significant for the following reasons:

  1. This study will be useful to both male and female undergraduates who are either into courtship or are intending to start afresh.
  2. It will also help young people in understanding each other during courtship which important for those who intend to get married.
  3. Since this study examines the perception of students toward courtship, it will assist them to make informed decisions in their relationship.
  4. Lastly, it will assist other researchers who might want to conduct similarly study.

 1.8   Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the influence of demographic factors on undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex using the University of Abuja, Abuja as case study. Two hundred (200) students from different faculties will be randomly selected for the study. The study covers a four year period, 2008 to 2012.

1.9 Definitions of Terms

Relative to this study, definitions to the following terms are provided in order to clarify each in the context of the topic:

Courtship- is the period in a couple’s relationship which precedes their engagement and marriage, or establishment of an agreed relationship of a more enduring kind.

Hooking up- is a term associated with the normative sexual behavior of university students today while historically it was perceived as a one-night stand or labeled as casual sex.

Marriage- also called matrimony or holy wedlock is a social union or legal contract between people (a man and a woman) that creates kinship. In Nigeria, marriage is recommended or compulsory for two opposite sex.

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