Family Background, School Location and Peer Group as Predictors of Juvenile Delinquency among Secondary School Students

INTRODUCTION

Socio-criminologists overtime have been engaged in analyzing juvenile delinquency as a concept, as well as establishing causal factors with the aim of prescribing effective measures of control.  An overview of juvenile delinquency in Nigeria points towards several casual factors such as the family background, school environment, peer group influence, home location and even the negative messages derived from the mass media.

Studies have revealed that family is a major predictor of delinquency (Breivik, Olweus, Endersen, 2009; Mandara and Murray, 2006).  According to Simons, Simons and Wallace (2004) children in single-parent homes are more likely to be delinquent. there is evidence to suggest that single-parent families, especially single-mothers, expect less of their children, spend less time monitoring them and use less effective techniques to discipline them. This means that children have greater opportunities and motivation to participate in delinquent acts than do those living in a two-parent family. Hence, the absence of one parent is a major predictor for juvenile delinquency (Mack et al., 2006).

Also, the idea that many schools are delinquency-producing agencies is fundamentally based on two types of accusations:(1) the school’s failure as a socialization agency- this refers to the school’s inability to inculcate upon students the necessary social skills that enable them to interact especially with peers and adults and (2) failure in academic subject may produce a situation in which students are frustrated and they (pupils) may turn into delinquent conduct.

The peer group may be viewed as an informal network of individuals of approximately the same age. Peers are thus individuals with whom a youth shares common problems and experiences. The peer group is a convenient structure which is suitable for needs of emotionally disturbed children who are unable to meet the demands required for participation in normal groups. The peer group is a crime predisposing factor as it creates opportunities outside family situation for children to commit crime.

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PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS AND MALADJUSTMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABUJA

RESEARCH OVERVIEW

1.1   Background to the Study     

  There have been several studies done within and outside Nigeria on the effects of home environment as well as the socio-economic status of parents on the academic achievement of students (Ajila  & Olutola,  2007; Uwaifo, 2012) .  Research has found many factors that influence how well a student does in school and the amount of confidence the students have for themselves. However, in Nigeria, like other growing economies, families are finding it more difficult to stay connected with their children’s education. This is most common to families living in populated areas such as Lagos where both parents work outside of the home. Carmen (2007) noted that the extended family has become significantly less extended as mobility has increased. Parents are becoming isolated from their children and finding it difficult to keep a careful watch on what needs to be done to help them succeed in school. Many families are not even led by a parent, but by a grandparent, guardian, or some other adult.

                Prior to this time, in what is sometimes called a traditional Nigerian family environment, parents were able to monitor the school work of their children carefully  and actively participated in Parents-Teachers Associations purposely to monitor the progress of their children. Report cards were valued and trusted in the home as an accurate reflection of academic achievement. Parents were able to keep in touch with the school and the life of their children in the school, and to monitor success or lack thereof. When children came home from school, homework was completed, assignments finished, and other school works were done.

With the changes in family life and indeed in societal makeup, schools are now finding it increasingly difficult to keep parents informed of and  actively engaged in the day-to-day progress of their children (Deslandes & Bertrand,  2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is not there, because the parents are not home to insist that students complete their assignments.

It must be noted that while there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to adjust to the demands of adolscence, Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students. The family background of the student, however is the most important factor that affects the student’s. In view of this, Hussain (2006) noted that secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children.

As a result of the challenges faced by families, many adolescents however engage in unhealthy risk behaviours such as: substance abuse, dangerous dieting, eating disorders, staying out all night, unprotected sexual activity, gang violence, handling weapons, bullying, shoplifting and stealing. Specific problems that can arise from such risky behaviours during adolescence include increased levels of stress, depression, anxiety, anorexia and substance dependence.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Although, scholars have identified the correlation between psycho-social factors and maladjustment among children, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their lives. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between psychosocial factors and maladjustment among adolescents in Abuja.

1.3       Research Objectives

The purpose of this study is to investigate psycho-social factors that influence adolescent behaviour.  Specifically, the goal of this study is to determine whether the psychosocial variables of family background, parents’ socio-economic status, peer influence and the adolescents’ self concept have direct effect on their maladjustments. Hence, the general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine the correlation between family background and maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school;
  2. Find out whether parents’ socio-economic status have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school
  3. Investigate the effects of peer group influence on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school;
  4. Examine the whether self-concept have significant effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school

1.4            Research Questions

Is there any correlation between family background and maladjustment among in-school adolescents in Nigeria?

Would parents’ socio-economic status have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

Does peer group influence have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

Does self-concept have significant effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

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 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study examines the effects of psychosocial variables of family background, parents’ socio-economic status, peer influence and self concept on maladjustments among adolescents in secondary schools using some selected schools in Abuja as case study.

The study will be delimited by a convenience sample of approximately 20 (twenty) students from five secondary schools and 20 (twenty) parents from Abuja.

Apart from the shortage of fund and time frame, the following limits are expected to be encounter in the study:

1.  It is recognized that not every parent will fit neatly into a particular parenting style.  These parent-child pairs will be discarded from the sample.

2.  Some adolescents will rate their parents as fair when in actuality they are not, therefore there will be some bias in the parents nominations.

3.  It is recognized that many adolescents may not give factual information as regards their maladjustments

4.  The accuracy of the data was limited by the skills of the researcher and validity of the tests administered.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar students’ during adolescence. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It has provide empirical evidence to schools, parents, and students about the nature of development adolescents may encounter and how it affects their behavior.
  2. It offers a reference for future research that might investigate the same variables.

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Influence of Family Background on Girls Attitude Towards Menstrual Hygiene in Nigeria

RESEARCH PROPOSAL     DOWNLOAD PDF HERE                                   

1.1  Background to the Study
Adolescence is a stage of growth and development in which  major cognitive,
psychological, and physical changes take place. Although both pubertal boys and girls need
to adjust to new role expectations associated with this period of maturation, the physical
changes experienced are different for each sex. For girls,  one of the most memorable and
defining moments of adolescence is menarche, the first menstrual period (Ikaraoha,
Mbadiwe, Igwe and Akagwa, 2005).

Jane (2001) maintained that menarche is a traumatic event during which girls
experience a loss of freedom, power, and spontaneity and that there is a cultural denial of
menarche and menstruation which manifests itself as a decrease in girls’ self-esteem. Cultural
attitudes and family beliefs regarding menstruation  have been shown to have a significant
relationship to the reporting of menstrual symptoms (Jane, 2001).

The meaning of menstruation varies cross-culturally. In  some cultures, the symbolic
polluting power of menstruation  is considered the basis for negative feelings toward female
bodies and the oppression of women, while other cultures  emphasize the symbolic
enhancement of life forces by menstrual blood in rituals (Padez and Rocha, 2003). Ikaraoha
et al (2005) reported that attitudes toward menstruation  among women might be
characterized  into four themes: emphasis on biological processes,  being a normal part of a
woman’s life, link directly to pregnancy, and cleansing the system.

The notion of negativity surrounding  menstruation among families usually holds the
view of unclean menstrual  blood as pollutant, by the maintenance of secrecy and  seclusion
surrounding menstruation, and by physical discomfort  associated with menstruation. In
contrast, families with positive views  about menstruation posit that it revitalizes the body,
clears impurities and is indicative of childbearing potential (Moronkolu and Uzegbu, 2006).
It has been established that menstrual hygiene is influenced by such factors as
socioeconomic class, sports and genetic factors (Diegton, 1993). Studies have shown
that the age is another major factor determing menstrualhygiene especially in the
developed countries (Padez and Rocha, 2003). However, it has been postulated that this
might be due to either the effect of a ceasing improvement of environmental factors
/infrastructure facilities that take care of the young girl.

Many families lack the necessary knowledge about menstrual hygiene and some of
their children too lack accurate knowledge, while others are misinformed. Thus evidence of
menstrual maladjustment and menstrual related problems abound in the society. Future
research into the girls’ attitudes towards menstrual problems and those of their mothers
therefore is warranted. Health education targeting mothers may also benefit their daughters.
Primary health care workers could even encourage girls to adopt the menses chart once their
menarche is reached. Reviewing the menstrual chart with the girls may educate them and
rectify any misconception, and may also lead to earlier management of any underlying
problems.

Given this background, this research examines the family background of students and
how the socio-cultural, economic status, education of parents and religious views held by the
family affect menstrual hygiene among adolescents.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Ignorance concerning sexuality and menstrual hygiene has been identified as a major
factor contributing to teenage pregnancies and infections in young people. menstruation is a
normal female biological milestone and abnormalities of menstruation are a major
gynaecological problem in adolescence. Menstrual disorders include menstrual irregularity,
menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea, and other related symptoms. menstrual irregularity affects
female adolescents, and a frequent cause of absenteeism from school or restriction of daily
activity. Moreover, family beliefs and cultural practices may affect attitudes towards
menstruation, which in turn may influence the views of adolescents on menstrual hygiene. In
many communities, adolescents tend to underutilize health  care services, which may have a
significant impact on the physical and social health of those affected. By contrast, there is
little knowledge on adolescents’ health-seeking behaviour  in regard to menstrual problems.
Availability of such information could be important for the development of appropriate
health care services and in the promotion of menstrual hygiene among girls in Nigerian
secondary schools. The study is set to identify the influence of family background on
adolescents towards menstrual hygiene.

1.3 Research Questions
i.  Would there be difference between religious background of thefamily and
adolescents attitude toward menstrual hygiene?
ii.  Would there be difference between economic status of the parents affect adolescents
attitude toward menstrual hygiene?
iii.  Would there be difference between educational status of parents affect adolescents
attitude toward menstrual hygiene?
iv.  Would there be difference between cultural background of the family and adolescents
attitude toward menstrual hygiene?

1.5 Research Hypotheses
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1.6 Significance of the Study
This will aid our knowledge about sexual health education and how parents influence
the adolescents attitude toward menstrual hygiene.

It will also show why there is need for parents and the school managers should
develop effective communication on educating young people about health education.

This contributes to the types of characteristics that explain the level of influence parents and
religious leaders have on the sexuality and health education of adolescents.

This study will bring about understanding with regard to what problems learners
encounter and what causes their sexual health behaviour. This will then allow the
development of improved strategies of help or intervention either by the teachers or the
parents.

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In this regard,
it will be useful for other researchers who might want to carry out research in related
areas.

1.7  Delimitation of the Study
This research work is delimited to public secondary schools students in Ijebu-Ife
metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The simple percentage method of data analysis will be
adopted to test the variables of family background and adolescents attitude towards
menstrual hygiene.

1.8 Limitation of the Study
Apart from timeframe and shortage of finance, the major limitation to this
research is the inability of the researcher to cover the whole public secondary schools
in Ijebu-Ife metropolis as the title suggest.

1.9  Definition of Terms
Adolescents
Adolescence (from Latin:  adolescere meaning “to grow up”) is a transitional stage of
physical and psychological human development generally occurring between puberty and
adulthood.
Family
In human context, a family (from Latin:  familia) is a group of people affiliated by
consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence.

Menstruation
Menstruation is the shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium). It occurs on a
regular basis in sexually reproductive-age females of certain mammal species. Regular
menstruation (also called eumenorrhea) lasts for a few days, usually 3 to 5 days, but anywhere
from 2 to 8 days is considered normal.

Menstrual Hygiene
Personal hygiene during menstruation includes bathing and showering, and buying and using
sanitary protection products.

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Education Project Topics

EDUCATION TOPICS (COST 4,000 EACH)

  1. THE EFFECTS OF STUDY HABIT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGUN STATE
  2. THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON CHOICE OF CAREER AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA
  3. AGE, SEX AND TEST ANXIETY AS PREDICTORS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
  4. THE CHALLENGES AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
  5. THE INFLUENCE OF PEER GROUP PRESSURE ON ADOLESCENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS
  6. INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND PEER GROUP ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE
  7. EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ COMPETENCE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
  8. THE IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ TEACHING METHODS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE
  9. EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ PERSONALITY ON SECONDARY SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
  10. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF FEMALE SCHOOL TEACHER LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN NIGERIA
  11. INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON UNDERGRADUATES’ PERCEPTION OF COURTSHIP AND PRE-MARITAL SEX
  12. INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS MENSTRUAL HYGIENE IN IJEBU-IFE METROPOLIS
  13. A STUDY OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN WAMAKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE
  14. INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON THE LEARNING ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS SEX EDUCATION IN IJEBU-IFE METROPOLIS
  15. INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE
  16. AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS
  17. EVALUATION OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL WITH COUNSELLING SERVICE
  18. IMPACT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES AND STUDENTS CAREER CHOICE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGOJA L.G.A
  19. THE EFFECT OF LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENT’S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN IKORODU LGA OF LAGOS STATE
  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS TO MATHEMATICS AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN UGHELLI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE
  21. SCHOOL LOCATIONAL VARIABLES AS DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE
  22. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF READING HABITS AND THE STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE