EFFECTIVENESS OF FAMILY PLANNING ON THE POPULATION IN AKWA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Chapter One: Introduction

Among the ten largest countries in the world, one is in Africa (Nigeria), five are in Asia (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan), two are in Latin America (Brazil and Mexico), one is in Northern America (United States of America), and one is in Europe (Russian Federation). Amongst these, Nigeria’s population, currently the seventh largest in the world with over 180 million people (Wordlometers, 2016) is growing the most rapidly. Consequently, the population of Nigeria is projected to surpass that of the United States by about 2050, at which point it would become the third largest country in the world (UN, 2015 ). Family  planning  according  to United Nations  Population  Funds  Activities  (UNPFA  2001)  is  a  recognized  basic  human  right  and  enables individuals and couples to determine the number and spacing of their children.       The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) stated that  family planning allows individuals and couples to  anticipate  and  attain  their  desired  number  of  children  and  the  spacing  and  timing  of  their  births.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on population growth, family planning and  the strategies of resolving population growth in Nigeria. Family planning according to United Nations Population Funds Activities (UNPFA 2001) is a recognized basic human right and enables individuals and couples to determine the number and spacing of their children. There is virtually not universally accepted theory on which a family planning research could be hinged. Nevertheless, people have approached the Problem using Health belief model by Rosen Stock et al and Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The population comprised the entire families in Isiala Mbano Local Government Area of Imo State. Sample sizes of 240 families were used for this study. 30 families were randomly drawn from each community using the simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The t-test statistics was employed to test the hypotheses formulated for the study.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking family planning and national development was made in the final chapter.

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ECONOMIC STATUS, RELIGIOUS BELIEF AND EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AS PREDICTORS OF HEALTH CARE DEMAND IN NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 1.1            Background to the Study

Many international institutions, including the World Bank and the World Health Organization (WHO), have recommended that countries should adopt universal health care coverage, believing that adequate health care is a basic human right. Nigeria is one of the countries that implemented this recommendation. For example, several initiatives and health schemes have been introduced by successive Nigerian governments specifically focusing on the middle class. These include the Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP), Family Support Programme (FSP) and National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). These schemes seek to ensure that every Nigerian has access to good and affordable health care services and that medical cost are distributed equitably among different income groups. However, the success of these initiatives and schemes has not been adequately felt by the poor (Osinubi, 2003). Specifically, access to affordable social services and health care services is being determined by the household income of the family. While the rich in urban areas of the country have access to quality health care services, the poor in both rural and urban areas are largely deprived access to quality health care services.

Healthcare financing in Nigeria is dominated by private out-of-pocket payment that is not affordable to the poor. This has greatly reduced access to quality health care for the predominantly poor households. Deaton (2003) posit that every individual has a need or a potential need for health care in the form of health promotion, prevention, cure or rehabilitation. This need is not always translated into a demand for health care particularly in developing countries for various reasons.

Several scholars have given reasons why there is inequality in access to quality healthcare among the various households. Ogunbekun, Ogunbekun, and Orobaton (1999) identify price of health care which may not be affordable by the individuals (Affordability). Ichoku and Leibbrandt (2003) argued that the Individuals may not have ready access to the health facility at a time or place that is convenient (Geographical accessibility). Green (2002) notes that the service required may not be available to the individual (Availability). Green further pointed that religious and cultural believes and practices may hinder the use of the health facilities (Acceptability). While Lambo (2003) notes that cost of time off from work and costs of waiting the demand for health care hinders accessibility to quality healthcare in Nigeria.

Focusing on household income as predictor of the demand for healthcare, in 1988, the World Bank conducted an extensive study on household demand for outpatient services in Ogun State. The empirical model assumed that choice of health care is a function of the following; price of the care, quality of the care, sex and education of the patients, wealth of the household, income of the household, urban residence, symptoms of the illness and seriousness of the illness (World Bank, 1988). In 2000 the World Health Organization ranked the performance of Nigeria’s health system 187th of 191 countries. The challenges facing Nigeria’s health system often fall into at least one of three categories: resources, access, and structure.

Due to the reduced access to health care, households often resort to leave the illness untreated or resort to the use of low quality care or self-medication. In the long-run, this will further impoverish the households (OECD/WHO, 2003). When the households decide to make out-of-pocket payments for medical bills at the point of utilization of health services this is often catastrophic in nature, especially for the poor. This is because health care payment is not expected to exceed a certain threshold of household income. In most circumstances, poor households face actual medical bills that exceed their earnings.

In this regard, this work explores the variables of household income, religious belief and educational background as the affect the demand for health care in Nigeria.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Demand for healthcare is not only driven by the financial status of the citizen. Other factors may also affect healthcare demand in Nigeria. Among these proposed factors is religious belief, particularly of some Christians who believe in diving health/healing as well as those who resort to the use of traditional herbs. Also, the educational background of the people could also affect their healthcare demand. For instance, most of those who benefitted from the National Health Insurance Scheme have secondary school education with many of them possessing first degree.

However, the deregulation of health care financing and supply in Nigeria has shifted the healthcare system towards competitive market ideals. Unfortunately, few studies have examined how income, religious belief and educational background affect health care demand in the country. The study therefore seeks to find out how these variables influence the demand for healthcare in Nigeria.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this research is to examine how the variables of household income, religious belief and educational background affect the demand for healthcare in Nigeria using Ijebu-Ode as case study. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were set:

  1.    To analyse the correlation between religious background of the family and demand for health care;
  2.    To examine the relationship between economic status of the family and demand for health care;
  3.    To find out the correlation between educational status of the family and demand for health care; and

 1.4     Research Questions

  1. What correlation exists between religious background of the family and demand for health care?
  2.  To what extent does economic status of the family affect demand for health care?
  3. Does the educational status of the family affect demand for health care?

1.5     Research Hypotheses

HoThere is no statistically significant difference between religious background of the family and demand for health care

Ho2  There is no statistically significant difference between economic status of the family and demand for health care

Ho3      There is no statistically significant difference between educational status of the family and demand for health care

 1.6     Significance of the Study

This will aid our knowledge about economics of health education and how household income, religious belief and educational background influence the demand for health care in Nigeria.

It will also show why there is need for the government and the providers of health care managers to develop effective communication on educating low and middle income households about inexpensive national healthcare schemes.

This study will bring about understanding with regard to what problems households encounter in accessing health care especially in Ijebu metropolis. This will then allow the development of improved strategies of help or intervention either by the government or the individuals.

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In  this  regard,  it  will  be  useful  for  other  researchers  who might want to carry out research in related areas.

1.7     Scope of the Study

The aim of this study is to characterise the structure of inequality among households and its effect on demand for healthcare services in Nigeria.

This research therefore examines the influence of household income, religious belief and educational background on the demand for health care in Ijebu-Ode.  This research work covers all households in Ijebu-Ode, an area of Ogun State. However, forty households will be used as case study.

 1.8     Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time  frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public households in Nigeria metropolis as the title suggest.

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Project Topics and Materials

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 1.1            Background to the Study

Many international institutions, including the World Bank and the World Health Organization (WHO), have recommended that countries should adopt universal health care coverage, believing that adequate health care is a basic human right. Nigeria is one of the countries that implemented this recommendation. For example, several initiatives and health schemes have been introduced by successive Nigerian governments specifically focusing on the middle class. These include the Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP), Family Support Programme (FSP) and National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). These schemes seek to ensure that every Nigerian has access to good and affordable health care services and that medical cost are distributed equitably among different income groups. However, the success of these initiatives and schemes has not been adequately felt by the poor (Osinubi, 2003). Specifically, access to affordable social services and health care services is being determined by the household…

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ECONOMIC STATUS, RELIGIOUS BELIEF AND EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AS PREDICTORS OF HEALTH CARE DEMAND IN NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 1.1            Background to the Study

Many international institutions, including the World Bank and the World Health Organization (WHO), have recommended that countries should adopt universal health care coverage, believing that adequate health care is a basic human right. Nigeria is one of the countries that implemented this recommendation. For example, several initiatives and health schemes have been introduced by successive Nigerian governments specifically focusing on the middle class. These include the Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP), Family Support Programme (FSP) and National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). These schemes seek to ensure that every Nigerian has access to good and affordable health care services and that medical cost are distributed equitably among different income groups. However, the success of these initiatives and schemes has not been adequately felt by the poor (Osinubi, 2003). Specifically, access to affordable social services and health care services is being determined by the household income of the family. While the rich in urban areas of the country have access to quality health care services, the poor in both rural and urban areas are largely deprived access to quality health care services.

Healthcare financing in Nigeria is dominated by private out-of-pocket payment that is not affordable to the poor. This has greatly reduced access to quality health care for the predominantly poor households. Deaton (2003) posit that every individual has a need or a potential need for health care in the form of health promotion, prevention, cure or rehabilitation. This need is not always translated into a demand for health care particularly in developing countries for various reasons.

          Several scholars have given reasons why there is inequality in access to quality healthcare among the various households. Ogunbekun, Ogunbekun, and Orobaton (1999) identify price of health care which may not be affordable by the individuals (Affordability). Ichoku and Leibbrandt (2003) argued that the Individuals may not have ready access to the health facility at a time or place that is convenient (Geographical accessibility). Green (2002) notes that the service required may not be available to the individual (Availability). Green further pointed that religious and cultural believes and practices may hinder the use of the health facilities (Acceptability). While Lambo (2003) notes that cost of time off from work and costs of waiting the demand for health care hinders accessibility to quality healthcare in Nigeria.

Focusing on household income as predictor of the demand for healthcare, in 1988, the World Bank conducted an extensive study on household demand for outpatient services in Ogun State. The empirical model assumed that choice of health care is a function of the following; price of the care, quality of the care, sex and education of the patients, wealth of the household, income of the household, urban residence, symptoms of the illness and seriousness of the illness (World Bank, 1988). In 2000 the World Health Organization ranked the performance of Nigeria’s health system 187th of 191 countries. The challenges facing Nigeria’s health system often fall into at least one of three categories: resources, access, and structure.

Due to the reduced access to health care, households often resort to leave the illness untreated or resort to the use of low quality care or self-medication. In the long-run, this will further impoverish the households (OECD/WHO, 2003). When the households decide to make out-of-pocket payments for medical bills at the point of utilization of health services this is often catastrophic in nature, especially for the poor. This is because health care payment is not expected to exceed a certain threshold of household income. In most circumstances, poor households face actual medical bills that exceed their earnings.

In this regard, this work explores the variables of household income, religious belief and educational background as the affect the demand for health care in Nigeria.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Demand for healthcare is not only driven by the financial status of the citizen. Other factors may also affect healthcare demand in Nigeria. Among these proposed factors is religious belief, particularly of some Christians who believe in diving health/healing as well as those who resort to the use of traditional herbs. Also, the educational background of the people could also affect their healthcare demand. For instance, most of those who benefitted from the National Health Insurance Scheme have secondary school education with many of them possessing first degree.

However, the deregulation of health care financing and supply in Nigeria has shifted the healthcare system towards competitive market ideals. Unfortunately, few studies have examined how income, religious belief and educational background affect health care demand in the country. The study therefore seeks to find out how these variables influence the demand for healthcare in Nigeria.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this research is to examine how the variables of household income, religious belief and educational background affect the demand for healthcare in Nigeria using Ijebu-Ode as case study. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were set:

  1.    To analyse the correlation between religious background of the family and demand for health care;
  2.    To examine the relationship between economic status of the family and demand for health care;
  3.    To find out the correlation between educational status of the family and demand for health care; and

 1.4     Research Questions

  1. What correlation exists between religious background of the family and demand for health care?
  2.  To what extent does economic status of the family affect demand for health care?
  3. Does the educational status of the family affect demand for health care?

 1.5     Research Hypotheses

HoThere is no statistically significant difference between religious background of the family and demand for health care

Ho2  There is no statistically significant difference between economic status of the family and demand for health care

Ho3      There is no statistically significant difference between educational status of the family and demand for health care

 1.6     Significance of the Study

This will aid our knowledge about economics of health education and how household income, religious belief and educational background influence the demand for health care in Nigeria.

It will also show why there is need for the government and the providers of health care managers to develop effective communication on educating low and middle income households about inexpensive national healthcare schemes.

This study will bring about understanding with regard to what problems households encounter in accessing health care especially in Ijebu metropolis. This will then allow the development of improved strategies of help or intervention either by the government or the individuals.

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In  this  regard,  it  will  be  useful  for  other  researchers  who might want to carry out research in related areas.

1.7     Scope of the Study

The aim of this study is to characterise the structure of inequality among households and its effect on demand for healthcare services in Nigeria.

This research therefore examines the influence of household income, religious belief and educational background on the demand for health care in Ijebu-Ode.  This research work covers all households in Ijebu-Ode, an area of Ogun State. However, forty households will be used as case study.

 1.8     Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time  frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public households in Nigeria metropolis as the title suggest.

DOWNLOAD PDF VERSION (HEALTHCARE DEMAND)

DOWNLOAD MS-WORD VERSION (HEALTHCARE DEMAND)

REQUEST FOR FULL PROJECT (Cost: NIGERIA 5000.    INTERNATIONAL $50).

Online Payment (ATM Processed by VoguePay)

Cash Payment (Bank)

CALL: 08077447220, 08074472654, 0813975937

EMAIL: omoteretope@gmail.com

 

The Influence of Environmental Factors on Choice of Career among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out mainly on the environmental factors that influence students’ choice of career in secondary school. Questionnaire was used to obtain data. The sample consisted of 100 students from four schools in Ijebu Ode local Government area of Ogun State. Data collected was analyzed using Pearson moment correlation co-efficient. This was used purposely to test the relationship that exists between the variables. The result revealed that factors such as family background, peer group pressure, societal valued jobs and the school environment directly influence students’ choice of career. By implication, secondary school students need adequate guidance from their parents and school counsellors to avail them the chance of making the right career choice.