IMPACT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOLS

IMPACT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON FEMALE STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOLS

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Chapter One: Introduction

Adolescent pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 18th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult. The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school.  The major problem with adolescent pregnancy and relating to this study is that many girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities. Although, studies have shown that delaying adolescent births could significantly lower population growth rates, potentially generating broad economic and social benefits, in addition to improving the health of adolescents; scholars are yet to directly link pregnancy on early and later adolescents as a factor which affects students’ performance in schools.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of pregnancy on early and later adolescents on students’ performance in schools and its implications for guidance. This chapter outlines the review of literature. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. The sub-headings are: theoretical framework, Teenage pregnancy and school attendance, teenage pregnancy and emotional behaviour, and teenage pregnancy and school performance. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of all secondary school teenagers in Ijebu-Ife metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The sample for this study constituted three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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Students’ Perception Of Female School Teacher Leadership Behaviour In Nigeria

1.1  Background to the Study

This study is set to investigate the students’ perception of female school teacher’s leadership behaviour and how this affects the teaching and learning process. The importance of leadership behaviour in school administration cannot be over looked given the background that it determines the extent to which a school goal and objectives can be achieved. Thus, the female school teachers’ leadership behaviour influences both the students and other teachers through her leadership style. A female teacher exposed to three types of leadership style: Authoritarian leadership style, Democratic leadership style and lastly, the Laissez Faire leadership style (Falodun, 2003). The leadership style adopted by the female school teacher often determines the perception which the students will have about other female teachers.

For instance, if a female heads the school as the principal and adopts the authoritarian leadership style, this will invariably influence the perception of the students that female principals are authocratic and unforgiven. Olaleye (2008) contents that leadership behaviour of the school principal, either male or female contributes to a range of perception which the students have about their teachers.

Research on leadership behaviour of female school teachers has for long being of interest to educational manager and evaluation experts. To some authorities, leadership behaviour is important because it directly affect the school learning culture; others have argued that the female teachers are in a unique position to enhance the teaching-learning process. Adetona (2003) noted that the task of any female school teacher is to produce well educated boys and girls through effective teaching and learning positive leadership behaviour in a classroom situation are associated with higher students’ motivation, good academic performance, and improved attitudes of the students towards their female teachers.

A significant challenge for female school teachers today is to identify the students need and the type of leadership model to be employed in transforming the students. The leadership model developed by Bass and Avolio (1997) identified three leadership behaviours. First is the Transformational Leadership Behaviour and can be identified by certain behaviour which includes inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Secondly, The Transactional Leadership behaviour which can also be identified with exchange of rewards for meeting agreed upon objectives. This leadership behaviour monitors the students to ensure mistakes are not made but allows group work among the students. In this case, the female teachers intervene only when things go wrong. Thirdly, the Non-Leadership Construct, popularly known as the Laissez Faire leadership behaviour where the female teacher leaves the students to their own devices as well as giving them no direction.

Empirical research evidence shows that students’ perception of their female school teachers emanates from the leadership model employed by the teacher. Again students’ perception of their female teacher is found to be a stereotyped one (Adebowale, 2007). It follows that it is not only the  leadership behaviour of the female school teachers that form the perception of the students but also certain factors which include the societal view of a female teacher; the religious contention of the role of a female; peer perception about girls and even, the values a family holds about the girl child.

This research will therefore investigate the nature of students’ perception of their female teachers, how these perceptions are formed; and the adverse effect of these perceptions held on the students academic performance

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Gender issue among school teaches leadership behaviour has generated a lot of debate among educational administrators, school managers and even among the teachers themselves. Ifedili (2004) posit that students too have their own views about the leadership behaviour of both their female teachers and their male counterparts. While some students prefer a male teacher others love to be taught by a female teacher. Adeyanju (1995) agreed that no matter how qualified or loving a female teacher might be, students assume that their leadership behaviour is based upon emotional toughness and takes things personal

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research work is to:

  1. find out the pattern of the general perception of secondary school teachers towards their female teachers leadership behaviour
  2. find out if their perception may depend on such factors as peer group, sex, age , family background, religious affiliation and school location

1.4 Research Questions

The researcher will answer the following questions:

  1. Is there any difference between religious affiliation of the students and their perception of female school teachers leadership behaviour?
  2. Is there any difference between peer group influence on the students and their perception of female school teachers’ leadership behaviour?
  3. Is there any difference between the school location of the students and their perception of female school teachers’ leadership behaviour
  4. Is there nay difference between family background of the students and their perception of female school teachers leadership behaviour?

1.5  Research Hypotheses

HO1There is no significant difference between religious affiliation of students and their perception of female school teachers’ leadership behaviour

HO2 There is no significant difference between peer group influence on the students and their perception of female school teachers’ leadership behaviour

HO3 There is no significant difference between the school location of the students and their perception of female school teachers

HO4 There is no significant relationship between family background of the students and their perception of female schools teachers’ leadership behaviour

1.6  Significance of the Study

This study is important because:

  1. it will provide valuable information on students perception of female school teachers leadership behaviour
  2. It will serve as resource material for others who wants to carry out research in related research areas.

1.7 Scope and Delimitation

This study centres on students perception of female school teachers leadership behaviour. It is aimed at all secondary school in Ijebu Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State but because of time, money and other factors, it will be limited to only four schools in Ijebu Ode

1.8  Operational Definition of Terms

Student: Student is a person who is learning at secondary school

Perception: Perception is a belief or opinion, often held by many people and base on appearances

School: The school is a place where children or students go to be formally educated

Teacher: A teacher is someone that impact knowledge into the students

Female Teacher: A female teacher is a legal entity or an individual who is trained in the art and science of teaching and has obtained an educational certificate for such purpose

Leadership: Leadership entails the set of characteristics that make a good leader

Behaviour: Behaviour means how a particular person relates or behaves in relationship to others.

Leadership Behaviour: Leadership behavior refers to how a leader structures the organization which he/she leads using the leadership model that works.

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Students’ Perception Of Female School Teacher Leadership Behaviour In Nigeria

Education Project Topics

EDUCATION TOPICS (COST 4,000 EACH)

  1. THE EFFECTS OF STUDY HABIT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGUN STATE
  2. THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON CHOICE OF CAREER AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA
  3. AGE, SEX AND TEST ANXIETY AS PREDICTORS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
  4. THE CHALLENGES AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
  5. THE INFLUENCE OF PEER GROUP PRESSURE ON ADOLESCENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS
  6. INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND PEER GROUP ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE
  7. EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ COMPETENCE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
  8. THE IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ TEACHING METHODS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE
  9. EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ PERSONALITY ON SECONDARY SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
  10. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF FEMALE SCHOOL TEACHER LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN NIGERIA
  11. INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON UNDERGRADUATES’ PERCEPTION OF COURTSHIP AND PRE-MARITAL SEX
  12. INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS MENSTRUAL HYGIENE IN IJEBU-IFE METROPOLIS
  13. A STUDY OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN WAMAKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE
  14. INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON THE LEARNING ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS SEX EDUCATION IN IJEBU-IFE METROPOLIS
  15. INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE
  16. AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS
  17. EVALUATION OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL WITH COUNSELLING SERVICE
  18. IMPACT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES AND STUDENTS CAREER CHOICE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGOJA L.G.A
  19. THE EFFECT OF LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENT’S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN IKORODU LGA OF LAGOS STATE
  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS TO MATHEMATICS AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN UGHELLI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE
  21. SCHOOL LOCATIONAL VARIABLES AS DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE
  22. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF READING HABITS AND THE STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE