The Challenges Affecting the Implementation of Universal Basic Education in Nigeria

This study focuses on the challenges affecting the implementation of Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Nigeria using Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State as a case study. This study identifies the major challenges that stand as a bottleneck towards the implementation of Universal Basic Education. Questionnaire was administered to collect relevant data which was analyzed, using the simple percentages method. It was discovered that poor monitoring and supervision of schools, working distance, inadequate infrastructural facilities, lack of qualified personnel (teachers) among others were responsible for poor implementation of the programme. The study further provided suggested solution to these problems.

Globalization and Nigerian Foreign Policy: A Historical Analysis


Background to the Study

This study examines the impact of globalization on the formulation and implementation of Nigeria’s foreign policy. It also looks at the evolution, theories and forces of globalization as it affects the peoples of various regions and their relationship with others. The development of Nigeria’s foreign policy under different leaders was also examined. The study looks at the correlation between globalization and Nigeria’s foreign policy with emphasis on the determinants of Nigeria’s foreign policy. Historical research method was adopted for this research. Both primary and secondary source materials were sourced in carrying out this research work. The study reveals that Nigeria is yet to benefit from globalization in the conduct of external relations. This is because the domestic factors that
determine Nigeria’s (i.e. economy, military, demography, leadership, constitution, etc.,) are not fully developed to give Nigeria the leverage to assert her influence at the regional level and on the global scene. It was recommended that the factors that impede Nigeria’s foreign policy (i.e. poor leadership, corruption, underdeveloped economy, etc.,) should be
looked into and resolved so that the country can benefit from globalization as other industrialized countries of the world have been doing.

Globalization constitutes a mega trend in Nigerian political economy and has assumed a new phase in the country’s international relations. Given the emergent socio-political and economic transformation as well as the technological advancement in communication, information, transportation etc, the process seems to be irreversible. Various institutional actors that is, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, etc, have indeed consistently intensified efforts towards engaging in socio-cultural relations with other global actors to develop her domestic scene.5 Thus,  Nigeria today is a belongs to the ‘global village’, a new phase that has  sharpened the development of her foreign policy; and  inter-connectedness of political, economic, social and technological forces that permeate contemporary global system.

Nigeria has made giant strides toward global economic integration through privatization. It is also liberalizing capital markets with increasing scope of mergers and acquisitions especially in the financial sector. The country has continued to relax capital controls which posed a significant obstacle to foreign direct investment (FDI). More importantly, Nigeria is an active participant in the New Economic Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) – a development plan which seeks to liberate Africa from underdevelopment, poverty, warm and corruption (Siddiq, 2003; Soludo, 2007). These are indicators that Nigeria fully supports and encourages globalization.

Statement of the Problem

          Although, much has been written on the globalization, little is known concerning the impact which globalization has had on the bilateral and multilateral relations which Nigeria has towards other countries in the international community. It is on the basis of the above that this research seeks to fill the vacuum which is yet to receive the attention of scholars of International Relations.

Scope of the Study

The study touches on the concepts of globalization and Nigeria forign policy. it examines the evolution of Nigeria’s foreign policy viz a viz the impact of globalization on the conduct of external relations of Nigeria with other countries of the world with reference to United States, European Union, China, India, and other African states from 1999 to 2009. Another important area that this study will look into is the influence of globalization on the determinants of Nigeria’s foreign policy.



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