THE EFFECTS OF STUDY HABIT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGUN STATE



Chapter One: Introduction

Research on the correlation between study habit and students academic achievement has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the national Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the students. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2019) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and study habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

               However, studies of school achievement indicate that most students are under achievers (Okegbile, 2017). A major reason for students’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2018) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that students, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing study materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

               Study habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work privately. Azikiwe (2017) describes the study habit as “the adopted way and manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain mastery of the subject”. According to her, “good study habits are good assets to learners because they (habits) assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization and consequent excellent performance, while opposite constitute constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure”.

               Good (2018) define the term study habits as: The student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc”. Going by this definition it literally means that good study habit produces positive academic performance while inefficient study habit leads to academic failure.

               In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

               According to Hussain (2016) secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor has caused serious damage to the achievement status to secondary school students.

               Achievement is generally a pedagogical terminology used while determining learners’ success in formal education and which is measured through reports examinations, researches, and ratings with numerous factors of variables exerting influence. Essentially, the National Policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) has identified school achievement contents according to school subjects which are classified as core or elective subjects.

               Although studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on students academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the effect of study habit on students’ academic performance. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of some selected secondary schools in Ijebu Ode Local Government area of Ogun State as case study. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.3 Empirical Review
2.4 Appraisal of Literature

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Answers to Research Hypotheses
4.2 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation


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MICRO-CREDIT AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF MARKET WOMEN IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Micro-credit schemes give poor people access to small amounts of financial credit to assist them in economic activities. As Naila Kabeer (1998) has noted, micro-credit programmes have become an increasingly important intervention for addressing poverty, through a strategy of direct lending or of financial intermediation. Further, in the 1990s the World Bank outlined a bilateral approach towards enhancing development growth for the poor: policies that supported the use of labour (by harnessing market incentives and other means) and the provision of basic services to the poor. In view of this, the bank and many other agencies have strongly maintained and advocated the implementation of micro-credit programmes as a positive means of enhancing women’s economic empowerment, especially in Third World countries (World Bank Report, 2000).

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The micro-credit scheme is the latest in a line of historical and conceptual frameworks for approaching interrelated development programmes or policies, designed and promoted as instruments of change. Concerns for women’s economic empowerment, voice and gender equality, especially within the household and community have informed the proliferation and implementation of these development schemes by many NGOs and governmental organisations.

Thus, the overall framework of this chapter will constitute two different parts: first it will examine various definitions of ‘development’ and its relevance to gender and development, and secondly, it will evaluate various development approaches and examine their significance to women’s economic empowerment and well-being in a broad spectrum.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The population for this study consists of all market women in Ita-Osun (popularly called New Market). The sample for this study constitutes one hundred (100) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis will be adopted.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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The Challenges Affecting the Implementation of Universal Basic Education in Nigeria

This study focuses on the challenges affecting the implementation of Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Nigeria using Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State as a case study. This study identifies the major challenges that stand as a bottleneck towards the implementation of Universal Basic Education. Questionnaire was administered to collect relevant data which was analyzed, using the simple percentages method. It was discovered that poor monitoring and supervision of schools, working distance, inadequate infrastructural facilities, lack of qualified personnel (teachers) among others were responsible for poor implementation of the programme. The study further provided suggested solution to these problems.