PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS AND MALADJUSTMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABUJA

RESEARCH OVERVIEW

1.1   Background to the Study     

  There have been several studies done within and outside Nigeria on the effects of home environment as well as the socio-economic status of parents on the academic achievement of students (Ajila  & Olutola,  2007; Uwaifo, 2012) .  Research has found many factors that influence how well a student does in school and the amount of confidence the students have for themselves. However, in Nigeria, like other growing economies, families are finding it more difficult to stay connected with their children’s education. This is most common to families living in populated areas such as Lagos where both parents work outside of the home. Carmen (2007) noted that the extended family has become significantly less extended as mobility has increased. Parents are becoming isolated from their children and finding it difficult to keep a careful watch on what needs to be done to help them succeed in school. Many families are not even led by a parent, but by a grandparent, guardian, or some other adult.

                Prior to this time, in what is sometimes called a traditional Nigerian family environment, parents were able to monitor the school work of their children carefully  and actively participated in Parents-Teachers Associations purposely to monitor the progress of their children. Report cards were valued and trusted in the home as an accurate reflection of academic achievement. Parents were able to keep in touch with the school and the life of their children in the school, and to monitor success or lack thereof. When children came home from school, homework was completed, assignments finished, and other school works were done.

With the changes in family life and indeed in societal makeup, schools are now finding it increasingly difficult to keep parents informed of and  actively engaged in the day-to-day progress of their children (Deslandes & Bertrand,  2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is not there, because the parents are not home to insist that students complete their assignments.

It must be noted that while there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to adjust to the demands of adolscence, Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students. The family background of the student, however is the most important factor that affects the student’s. In view of this, Hussain (2006) noted that secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children.

As a result of the challenges faced by families, many adolescents however engage in unhealthy risk behaviours such as: substance abuse, dangerous dieting, eating disorders, staying out all night, unprotected sexual activity, gang violence, handling weapons, bullying, shoplifting and stealing. Specific problems that can arise from such risky behaviours during adolescence include increased levels of stress, depression, anxiety, anorexia and substance dependence.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Although, scholars have identified the correlation between psycho-social factors and maladjustment among children, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their lives. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between psychosocial factors and maladjustment among adolescents in Abuja.

1.3       Research Objectives

The purpose of this study is to investigate psycho-social factors that influence adolescent behaviour.  Specifically, the goal of this study is to determine whether the psychosocial variables of family background, parents’ socio-economic status, peer influence and the adolescents’ self concept have direct effect on their maladjustments. Hence, the general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine the correlation between family background and maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school;
  2. Find out whether parents’ socio-economic status have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school
  3. Investigate the effects of peer group influence on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school;
  4. Examine the whether self-concept have significant effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school

1.4            Research Questions

Is there any correlation between family background and maladjustment among in-school adolescents in Nigeria?

Would parents’ socio-economic status have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

Does peer group influence have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

Does self-concept have significant effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

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 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study examines the effects of psychosocial variables of family background, parents’ socio-economic status, peer influence and self concept on maladjustments among adolescents in secondary schools using some selected schools in Abuja as case study.

The study will be delimited by a convenience sample of approximately 20 (twenty) students from five secondary schools and 20 (twenty) parents from Abuja.

Apart from the shortage of fund and time frame, the following limits are expected to be encounter in the study:

1.  It is recognized that not every parent will fit neatly into a particular parenting style.  These parent-child pairs will be discarded from the sample.

2.  Some adolescents will rate their parents as fair when in actuality they are not, therefore there will be some bias in the parents nominations.

3.  It is recognized that many adolescents may not give factual information as regards their maladjustments

4.  The accuracy of the data was limited by the skills of the researcher and validity of the tests administered.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar students’ during adolescence. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It has provide empirical evidence to schools, parents, and students about the nature of development adolescents may encounter and how it affects their behavior.
  2. It offers a reference for future research that might investigate the same variables.

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The Influence of Home Environment on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nigeria

Abstract

This study examined the impact of parental involvement on the academic performance of secondary school students using some selected schools in Ago-Iwoye Metropolis, an area of Ogun State as case study. Forty respondents comprising twenty students and twenty parents were randomly selected from the study area. Two hypotheses were developed to test the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school. Questionnaire was used to gather data on gender, age, students’ study skills, socio-economic status of parents, and family description. To determine parenting style, parents completed the Parental Involvement and Dimension Questionnaire. Data was analyzed using chi square. Also, as hypothesized, academic performance of students in the selected schools was significantly positively correlated with a good home environment in the students’ education. The research contends that parental involvement at all grade levels can assist in the academic and behavioral performance of students. Hence, it is suggested that similar research with relevant research methodology should be used in carrying out research in other states of the Federation to ascertain the degree of conformity which this research have on the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1   Background to the Study                        

                   There have been several studies done within and outside Nigeria on the effects of home environment as well as the socio-economic status of parents on the academic achievement of students (Ajila  & Olutola,  2007; Uwaifo, 2012).  Research has found many factors that influence how well a student does in school and the amount of confidence the students have for themselves. However, in Nigeria, like other growing economies, families are finding it more difficult to stay connected with their children’s education. This is most common to families living in mega cities such as Lagos where both parents work outside of the home. Carmen (2007) noted that the extended family has become significantly less extended as mobility has increased. Parents are becoming isolated from their children and finding it difficult to keep a careful watch on what needs to be done to help them succeed in school. Many families are not even led by a parent, but by a grandparent, guardian, or some other adult.

                Prior to this time, in what is sometimes called a traditional Nigerian family environment, parents were able to monitor the school work of their children carefully  and actively participated in Parents-Teachers Associations purposely to monitor the progress of their children. Report cards were valued and trusted in the home as an accurate reflection of academic achievement. Parents were able to keep in touch with the school and the life of their children in the school, and to monitor success or lack thereof. When children came home from school, homework was completed, assignments finished, and other school works were done.

            With the changes in family life and indeed in societal makeup, schools are now finding it increasingly difficult to keep parents informed of and  actively engaged in the day-to-day progress of their children (Deslandes & Bertrand,  2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is not there, because the parents are not home to insist that students complete their assignments.

         It must be noted that while there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to progress academically, Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students academic performance. The family background of the student, however is the most important factor that affects the student’s academic performance. In view of this, Hussain (2006) noted that secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor shows how important the family is to academic achievement of students in secondary schools as well as the centrality of parents to the academic performance of students.

             Influence of home environment in students’ education has been a major topic of study for the later part of the twentieth century.  Baumrind (1971) has been credited for defining three specific parental involvement and their consequences for children. These are (a) authoritative, (b) authoritarian, and (c) permissive involvement of parents in children’s schooling based on levels of warmth and control used by the parent in disciplining the child.  According to Baumrind (1991), parental involvement is meant to capture normal variations in parents attempts to socialize children.  Parental involvement can be both supportive and unsupportive in their tone, both of which affect developmental outcomes and consequences to personality development. Baumrind described how parental involvement affect measures of competence, achievement, and social development.

         Although, students are primarily the ones for whom curricula are designed, textbooks are written, and schools built, parents are primarily the ones held responsible for preparing students for learning – preparation physically, psychologically, behaviorally, attitudinally, emotionally, and motivationally, just to name a few.

        Over the years, numerous theories and associated constructs have been formulated and have evolved to describe and explain these two independent variables, that is, home environment and students academic performance. For example, the behavioral learning theories of Thorndike, Watson, Skinner and, Hull, the cognitive learning theories of Piaget, Kolhberg, and Vygotsky, and the social learning theories of Bandura, have been used to pose and answer questions about students and parents. Dornbusch (1996), found empirical evidence of what most parents and educators know from experience – that parents have a strong influence on secondary school students.

        Steinberg and his colleagues conducted surveys, focus groups, and individual interviews with high school students and parents to better understand how parents, peers and communities influence students’ commitment to school.  The 10-year longitudinal study collected data from 20,000 students and 500 parents in nine ethnically diverse school and communities.  These researchers found that parents’ behaviors send clear and decisive messages about their thoughts and feelings on the importance of schooling.  They also found that parenting style helps or hinders a child’s engagement in school; that encouraging a child to do well in school or insisting that homework be completed were important forms of promoting engagement. These three tenets – communication, influence, and parenting style – are subsets of a larger domain, parental involvement.

           The aforementioned studies are not the only ones that speak to the issue of parenting involvement, but, here, serve only as a way of introducing the broader sphere. In this present study, home environment was studied in reference to its influence on the academic performance of students  in secondary school.

 1.2 Statement of the Problem

        Although, scholars have identified the correlation between parental influences on children academic performance in the primary school, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their academics. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between home environment, with particular reference to parenting style and socio-economic status of parents; and secondary school students’ academic performance.

 1.3. Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study was to examine the influence of home environment on students’ academic performance. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school;
  2. Examine factors determining the  home environment;
  3. Investigate the effects of the socio-economic status of parents on student’s academic performance;
  4. Examine the perceptions of students towards their parents in regards to parenting style and their academic performance.

1.4    Research Questions

  1. What relationship exists between the type of parental involvement and secondary school student academic achievement?

2.  Do socio-economic and educational background of parents affect their involvement in their children in secondary schools?

3       Do parenting style and parental involvement directly affect students academic performance?

4 Do perceptions of students about their parents affect their academic performance?

 1.5 Research Hypotheses

H01: There is no statistically significant difference between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school.

H02: There is no statistically significant difference between socio-economic and educational background of parents and involvement in their children’s education

 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study was limited by a convenience sample of approximately 20 (twenty) students from five secondary schools and 20 (twenty) parents from Ago-Iwoye Metropolis In Ogun State.

Apart from the shortage of fund and time frame, the following limits were found in the study:

1.  It is recognized that not every parent will fit neatly into a particular parenting style.  These parent-child pairs will be discarded from the sample.

2.  Some children will rate their parents as fair when in actuality they are not, therefore there will be some bias in the parents nominations.

3.  It is recognized that a parenting style may be chosen by a family due need rather than desire.

4.  The study was limited to the students whose parents gave consent for their participation, as well as, receiving the students’ assent.

5.  The accuracy of the data was limited by the skills of the researcher and validity of the tests administered.

 

1.7     Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic performance. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It has provide empirical evidence to schools, parents, and students about the nature of parental involvement and how it affects the academic performance of students
  2. It offers a reference for future research that might investigate the same variables.

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms

Home Environment: Home environment refers to aspects of peoples domestic lives that contribute to their living conditions. These factors may be physical (poverty, psychological conditions due to parenting; social circumstances (single parenting) or wider cultural patterns of life related to the location (Urban or rural environments).

Parent:  The term parent as used in this study includes, in addition to a natural  parent, a legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis, such as a grandparent or  stepparent with whom the child lives, or a person who is legally responsible for a child’s welfare.

 Parental Involvement: any form of verbal or non-verbal communication or assistance in reference to a child’s homework.

 Parenting Style: The overall emotional climate of the parent-child relationship- an affective context of sorts that sets the tone for the parents interactions with the child.

 Student academic achievement: This term refers to the student’s overall average  in science, social studies, English, and math, expressed as a percent grade. 

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An Analysis of the Effects of Reading Habits on the Academic Performance of Science Students in Nigeria

1.1   Background of the Study

Research on the correlation between reading habit and students academic achievement in science subjects has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between reading habits and academic performance of the students. Findings of the reading revealed a positive correlation between reading habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2001) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and reading habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

            However, studies of school achievement indicate that most students are under achievers. (Dizney, 2003, Okegbile, 20070 and Adetunji  and Oladeji, 2007). A major reason for students’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2004) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that students, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing reading materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

            Reading habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work privately. Azikiwe (1998) describes the reading habit as “the adopted way and manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain mastery of the subject”. According to her, “good reading habits are good assets to learners because they (habits) assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization and consequent excellent performance, while opposite constitute constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure”.

            Good (1998) define the term reading habits as: The student’s way of reading whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc”. Going by this definition it literally means that good reading habit produces positive academic performance while inefficient reading habit leads to academic failure.

            In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient reading habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students reading habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for reading; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

            According to Hussain (2006) science students in secondary schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor has caused serious damage to the achievement status to secondary school students.

            Achievement is generally a pedagogical terminology used while determining learners’ success in formal education and which is measured through reports examinations, researches, and ratings with numerous factors of variables exerting influence. Essentially, the National Policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) has identified school achievement contents according to school subjects which are classified as core or elective subjects.

            Although studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of reading habit on students academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor reading habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.

1.2         Statement of the problem

Due to the increasing nature of poor academic performance of secondary school students especially in science subjects in external examinations like WAEC or JAMB, many educationists tend to shift the blame on the teaching methodology adopted by the teachers and lack of fund from the government to provide quality textbooks. However, these might not be the main reasons why students perform poorly in examinations. It is clear from all indications that most secondary school students have poor reading habit which might lead to poor academic performance.

            As true as this might sound, it is yet to gather adequate research evidence to prove that it is a key factor on why students fail.

1.3              Purpose of the Study

The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of reading habit on students’ academic performance. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

1.       Assess the reading habit of  science students in secondary school;

2.       Compare the academic performance of students who have developed a reading habit and those who do not have reading habit;

3.       Examine factors influencing students reading habit;

4.       Investigate the effect of reading habit on student’s academic performance in science subjects.

1.4              Research Question

The following questions were raised to guide the reading:

1.       Is there any relationship between students reading habit and academic performance?

2.       What is the nature of relationship between students reading habit and their family background?

3.       How important is method of reading on academic performance of students?

4.       Does the school environment, student personality and peer group affect the reading habit of students?

1.5              Research Hypotheses

Four hypotheses were formulated based on the research questions:

H01: There is no significant relationship between students reading habit and academic performance.

H02: There is no significant relationship between students reading habit and their family background.

H03: There is no significant relationship between method of reading and academic performance of students.

H04: There is no significant relationship between the school environment, student personality and peer group and the reading habit of students.

1.6              Significance of the Reading

This study will be used to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic performance in science subjects. Therefore, the reading is significant in this regard.

●      It attempts to combine reading skills with reading habit and how they both affect academic performance of students.

●      It will provide valuable information about the effects of poor reading habit on the academic performance of students.

●      It will serve as resource materials for others who want to carry out research in related field.

1.7              Scope/Delimitation of the Reading

This study centers on effects of reading habit on academic performance of students in Agege Local Government area of Lagos State. It is aimed at all secondary school students in Agege Local Government area of Lagos State but due to time, money and other factors it will be limited to only five schools in Agege Local Government area of Lagos State .

 

Operational Definition of terms

Reading habit: This is a behaviour style that is systematically formed by students towards learning and achievement.

Reading skills: These are peculiar strategies developed by the students in reading.

Academic: This has been variously defined but for the purpose of this reading, Hornby (1991) define academic has that which has to do with school college studies or learning in other words designate the intellectual; aspect of education particularly the final subject deals with organized knowledge.

Academic performance: This refers to the performance that falls within specified standard. The specified standard is usually called pass mark and the pass mark is score above average which students are considered having passed and below which students are considered having failed.

Student: A person who is learning or reading at a place of higher or further education.

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Education Project Topics

EDUCATION TOPICS (COST 4,000 EACH)

  1. THE EFFECTS OF STUDY HABIT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGUN STATE
  2. THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON CHOICE OF CAREER AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA
  3. AGE, SEX AND TEST ANXIETY AS PREDICTORS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
  4. THE CHALLENGES AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
  5. THE INFLUENCE OF PEER GROUP PRESSURE ON ADOLESCENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS
  6. INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND PEER GROUP ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE
  7. EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ COMPETENCE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
  8. THE IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ TEACHING METHODS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE
  9. EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ PERSONALITY ON SECONDARY SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
  10. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF FEMALE SCHOOL TEACHER LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN NIGERIA
  11. INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON UNDERGRADUATES’ PERCEPTION OF COURTSHIP AND PRE-MARITAL SEX
  12. INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS MENSTRUAL HYGIENE IN IJEBU-IFE METROPOLIS
  13. A STUDY OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN WAMAKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE
  14. INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON THE LEARNING ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS SEX EDUCATION IN IJEBU-IFE METROPOLIS
  15. INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE
  16. AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS
  17. EVALUATION OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL WITH COUNSELLING SERVICE
  18. IMPACT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES AND STUDENTS CAREER CHOICE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGOJA L.G.A
  19. THE EFFECT OF LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENT’S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN IKORODU LGA OF LAGOS STATE
  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS TO MATHEMATICS AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN UGHELLI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE
  21. SCHOOL LOCATIONAL VARIABLES AS DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE
  22. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF READING HABITS AND THE STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE