NIGERIA-CAMEROON RELATIONS: A HISTORICAL APPRAISAL

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Nigeria-Cameroon is historically seen within the purview of the border dispute over Bakassi Peninsula. The Peninsula has been a bone of contention between the two countries dating back to the colonial period. On august 6th 1861, an agreement was concluded between King Dosumu and the British Crown in which the latter agreed to cede Lagos to the British Crown and by 1862, Lagos was proclaimed a colony. In the same vein, on September 10, 1884, similar agreement was signed between the kings and chiefs of old Calabar and the British government. In this agreement, the British government agreed to protect all the territories controlled by the Obong of Calabar, and true enough, Bakassi was one of these territories. The Bakassi was under the jurisdiction of the Efik Kingdom as at the time (September 10, 1884) when the agreement was signed.

However, the political and commercial hegemony enjoyed by Britain in the West African Coast was challenged by the Germans on July 14th, 1884 under the German Consul General, Dr. Nachtigal who entered into treaty agreement with two Douala chiefs. This was followed by hoisting of German flags in Douala and Bimba which belonged to Cameroon. Although Germany by 1880 has had contacts with the Cameroonian people, one could say that Cameroon as a political entity came into existence by virtue of the treaty mentioned above. Thus, the identification of Cameroon as a political unit in this area brought to the fore the question of demarcation of spheres of influence between Britain and Germany, thus leading to the establishment of boundaries. Thus, this development marked the beginning of rivalry and conflict between Britain and Germany over their colonial possessions and which was eventually inherited by the two West African Countries even after independence.

Hostilities and military confrontations broke out in the early 1990s between Cameroon and Nigeria. In 1994, Cameroon asked the International Court of Justice (ICJ), also known as the World Court, to settle a dispute over its boundary with Nigeria, especially the question of sovereignty over the Bakassi peninsula, and over islands in Lake Chad, and to specify the course of the land and maritime boundary between the two countries.
After eight years of adjudication, the Court delivered its judgment on the merits of the case on 10th October 2002, deciding, in part, that sovereignty over the Bakassi peninsula and in the disputed area in the Lake Chad region lies with Cameroon. To help implement this decision in a peaceful manner, President Paul Biya of Cameroon and President Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria asked the Secretary-General to set up a Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission chaired by the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for West Africa, Mr. Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah, to consider ways of following up on the ICJ ruling and moving the process forward.

Today, Bakassi peninsula is governed by Cameroon, following the transfer of sovereignty from neighbouring Nigeria as a result of a judgment by the International Court of Justice. On 22 November 2007, the Nigerian Senate rejected the transfer, since the Green Tree Agreement ceding the area to Cameroon was contrary to Section 12(1) of the 1999 Constitution. Regardless, the territory was transferred to Cameroon on 14 August 2008.

Chapter Two: Historical Overview of Bakassi Peninsula
The controversy over Bakassi was who owns the Bakassi – Nigeria or Cameroon? It is this debate that has generated a lot of problem. This chapter historicizes where Bakassi was actually located at the period of partition by in the 19th century

Chapter Three: Nigeria-Cameroon Relations Over Bakassi Since Independence
This chapter examines Nigeria-Cameroon relations in the post-independence era. The major causes of conflict will be examined while efforts will be made to discuss how the dispute over Bakassi made their relations to be sore in the 20th century.

Chapter Four: The ICJ Judgment: Implication And Assessment
In this chapter, the researcher analysed how the crisis generated by the political disagreement and military confrontation between Nigeria and Cameroon over the Bakassi peninsula led Cameroon on march 29, 1999 and on June 6, 1999 to file an application instituting proceedings against Nigeria at the ICJ which related to the question of sovereignty over the Bakassi peninsula and over a part of the territory of Cameroon in the area of lake Chad. These suits in addition to a counter-memorial filed by Nigeria between June and October 1998, set the tone for the various legal proceedings by both Nigeria and Cameroon in the International Court of Justice (ICJ), but which eventually culminated in the final ICJ decision on October 10, 2002 in favour of Cameroon. This chapter accesses the implication of the ICJ judgment on Nigeria-Cameroon relations.

NIGERIA-CAMEROON RELATIONS:  A HISTORICAL APPRAISAL 

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INFLUENCE OF METACOGNITION, SELF-EFFICACY AND LEARNING STRATEGIES ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
This study investigates the ariables of metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies as they affect the academic achievement of secondary school students in Biology (Adewole, 2001). . The research derives its motivation from the behavioural theories which posit that every young child develop a sense of self from their perceptions of important people in their surroundings, including relatives, teachers, and peers. Thus, metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies affect the process by which children learn (Bornstein, 2002). It is on this basis that the factors metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies are examined in the light of linking them with the adolescent worldview, bevahiour as well as performance.

In the Biology classroom, students are called upon to reflect on concrete examples and associate these with abstract theories. Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them (Flaell as cited in Dantonio and Beisenherz, 2001). Quite simply, metacognition is thinking about thinking. Any process in which students examine the Method that they are using to retrieve, develop or expand information is deemed to be metacognitive in nature. Therefore, questions generated by the teacher would be considered metacognitive in nature if the questions invoke the process used to arrive at a response rather than soliciting a correct answer based on the student’s memory of the material.

Research on metacognition and academic performance or achievement of children with learning problems seems to indicate that this is a relatively new field. The study During adolescence, the amount of influence that the variables of metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies have on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Biology cannot be overemphasized. The ways and manners by which metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies affects adolescents academic performance needs to be researched and documented. This will assist parents and counselors to understand the patterns and ways to curb negative influence.

While scholars have identified the correlation between learning strategy and self efficacy on students’ academic performance in the primary school, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their academics. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies influence on adolescents academic performance to school.

Chapter Two: Literature Review                                                                                           Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies influence on adolescents academic performance to school.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies of students using Lagos State as case study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations linking the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies of students were made.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Metacognition and Academic Achievement
2.3 Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement
2.4 Learning Strategies and Academic Achievement

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

INFLUENCE OF METACOGNITION, SELF-EFFICACY AND LEARNING STRATEGIES ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

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Omotere Tope holds N.C.E.(History/C.R.S.) from Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Lagos;  B.A. Ed. (History & Diplomatic Studies) from Tai Solarin University of Education, Ogun; and M.A. (History & International Studies) from University of Ilorin, Kwara. He has undergone training at the United States Institute of Peace with Certificate of Course Completion in Conflict Analysis (online). He has publised peer reviewed articles in local and international journals. His areas of expertise is foreign policy, cultural history and contemporary international politics.

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Omotere Adunola holds N.C.E. (PES/SOS)  from Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Lagos;  B.Ed. (Childhood Education) from Tai Solarin University of Education, Ogun; and M.Ed (Early Childhood Education – in progress) from Tai Solarin University of Education, Ogun.She has researched estensively on Universal Basic Education, Childhood Education and Inclusive Education.

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