Chapter One: Introduction
This study investigates the ariables of metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies as they affect the academic achievement of secondary school students in Biology (Adewole, 2001). . The research derives its motivation from the behavioural theories which posit that every young child develop a sense of self from their perceptions of important people in their surroundings, including relatives, teachers, and peers. Thus, metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies affect the process by which children learn (Bornstein, 2002). It is on this basis that the factors metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies are examined in the light of linking them with the adolescent worldview, bevahiour as well as performance.

In the Biology classroom, students are called upon to reflect on concrete examples and associate these with abstract theories. Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them (Flaell as cited in Dantonio and Beisenherz, 2001). Quite simply, metacognition is thinking about thinking. Any process in which students examine the Method that they are using to retrieve, develop or expand information is deemed to be metacognitive in nature. Therefore, questions generated by the teacher would be considered metacognitive in nature if the questions invoke the process used to arrive at a response rather than soliciting a correct answer based on the student’s memory of the material.

Research on metacognition and academic performance or achievement of children with learning problems seems to indicate that this is a relatively new field. The study During adolescence, the amount of influence that the variables of metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies have on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Biology cannot be overemphasized. The ways and manners by which metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies affects adolescents academic performance needs to be researched and documented. This will assist parents and counselors to understand the patterns and ways to curb negative influence.

While scholars have identified the correlation between learning strategy and self efficacy on students’ academic performance in the primary school, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their academics. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies influence on adolescents academic performance to school.

Chapter Two: Literature Review                                                                                           Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies influence on adolescents academic performance to school.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies of students using Lagos State as case study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations linking the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies of students were made.

1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Metacognition and Academic Achievement
2.3 Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement
2.4 Learning Strategies and Academic Achievement

3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation






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Awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a Career among Secondary School



1.1             Background of the Study

The Medical Laboratory profession has its roots in clinical pathology. In fact, “the practice of modern medicine would not be possible without the professional services of medical technologists, also known as clinical laboratory scientists” Muelhlenkamp (as cited in Kirby, 2007).

In the 21st century, clinical laboratory science is a healthcare profession that encompasses areas such as hematology, clinical chemistry, microbiology, parasitology, immunohematology, toxicology, immunology, and molecular pathology. The clinical laboratory workforce is comprised of practitioners nationally recognized by their degree of education and training as well as by their level of expertise. It is the combination of education, training, and experience, which differentiates practitioners and qualifies them for employment in a particular field.

The Medical Laboratory Science workforce seems to be at an exciting crossroad of change, both in recruiting and in curriculum.The environment of healthcare has changed and so has nursing, resulting in students asking, “what is Medical Laboratory Science?”. This question creates a challenge for Medical Laboratory Science educators. In order to attract and retain bright, capable students in nursing, there must be changes in Medical Laboratory Science curricula to provide and assure accurate and definitive perceptions of Medical Laboratory Science. Factors which currently contribute to students’ perceptions of Medical Laboratory Science must be identified in order to establish and provide students with the career making skills necessary in choosing a Medical Laboratory Science career, find job satisfaction following graduation, and remain in Medical Laboratory Science as a career.

Today, the conceptualization by students of the Medical Laboratory Science profession appears uncertain, and the question asked by many students is “What is Medical Laboratory Science?” (Wieck, 2000). Historically, nurses have been predominantly females. Students’ perceptions of Medical Laboratory Science are based on visual images that are often limited to blood testing and x-ray taking instead of that of a highly skilled and well-educated Medical Laboratory professional with an important role to play in healthcare. Many students have not spent time with a Medical Laboratory professional or volunteered in a healthcare setting to acquire a background on which to establish perceptions about Medical Laboratory Science, and thus have limited their opportunities for more informed career decision-making skills.


Many bright students are looking for advanced degrees, and are often confused regarding academic tracks for Medical Laboratory Science. These students are often discouraged by the lack of standardization in Medical Laboratory Science education, and choose alternative curricula in medicine instead of Medical Laboratory Science. Students also need to be aware of advanced degrees that prepare students to achieve advanced educational opportunities.

1.2             Statement of the Problem


Hospitals and healthcare facilities in the Nigeria are facing serious shortages of medical laboratory personnel, which, if not addressed, stand to negatively impact patient care. The problem is compounded by a reduction in the numbers of academic programs and resulting decrease in the number of graduates to keep up with the increase in industry demands. This problem is not peculiar to Nigeria. For instance, in the United States Cearlock (as cited in Enrado, 2009) asserted that “only two new clinical lab professionals enter the field for every seven who retire, and the average age of the laboratory professional is over 50”.

Also, there appears to be a limited, and in some cases, negative perception that is of the Medical Laboratory profession created by a number of factors that filter down to secondary school students. Students’ perceptions about Medical Laboratory Science have been shown to be influenced by several factors including negative parental viewpoints, a lack of time spent by students in healthcare settings, absence of Medical Laboratory mentors, and unrealistic television media portrayals of Medical Laboratory practictioners.

Facing this national shortage of educational opportunities and the projected need for laboratory professionals, faculty and trained professionals found it was more critical than ever to make sure that entrants to the program succeeded, graduated, and prepared to enter the profession.

Therefore, research is needed to determine if adequate informed career decisions making skills about Medical Laboratory prior to entering the programs can improve Medical Laboratory student retention rates and career satisfaction. Given these challenges, the purpose of this study was to determine the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career path among secondary students.


1.3             Research Question

  1. Is there any relationship between family background and the awareness of Medical Laboratory as a career among secondary school students?
  2. Is there any relationship between peer group pressure and the awareness of Medical Laboratory as a career among secondary school students?
  3. Is there any relationship between societal valued jobs and the awareness of Medical Laboratory as a career among secondary school students?
  4. Is there any relationship between school environment and the awareness of Medical Laboratory as a career among secondary school students?


1.4       Research Hypotheses



1.5             Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research work is to:

Find out if family background determines the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career among secondary school students

Find out if peer group pressure determines the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career among secondary school students


Find out if there is a relationship between societal valued jobs and the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career among secondary school students


Find out if school environment determines the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career among secondary school students


1.6             Significance of the Study


The significance of this study lies in its impact on three general areas: (a) the individual student, (b) the society, and (c) the Medical Laboratory profession. The individual student has a desire to succeed and to complete the degree program in order to be eligible to sit for the certification examination and to gain employment in the profession. The exiting of students from the program before completion means that resources have been wasted and that dreams have been thwarted.


Clearly, the shortages of personnel and the program closures have placed new demands on medical laboratory technology programs to recruit more students and to develop strategies to decrease attrition and to increase graduation rates. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict student success and to implement strategies that will enhance student learning and decrease attrition will have a positive impact on graduation rates and the availability of trained professionals in the community.


There is a definite need for empirical research that will enhance the knowledge of

educators in the health related fields of study, particularly in the field of Medical Laboratory Technology. While there is a wide body of research attempting to predict student success in nursing or medicine, little research was found in a review of the literature examining predictability of student success in Medical Laboratory Science.

Understanding students’ perceptions of nursing will help Medical Laboratory Science recruiters and educators to determine whether an Introduction to Medical Laboratory Science course would be beneficial to intending students. Academic and visible healthcare experience can provide students with more informed career decision-making skills, as well as help to formulate informed perceptions of professional Medical Laboratory Science


1.7             Delimitation of the Study

The research is needed to determine the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career path among secondary students. The study focuses on the factors that influence students’ choice of career in secondary schools. It is aimed at all secondary school students in Kwara State but because of time, money and other factors, it will be limited to only four schools.

1.8             Operational Definition of Terms


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Social Media Usage as Predictor of Examination Malpractices among Students in Nigeria


1.1 Background to the Study

Scholars have indentified age of the student (Achio, 2012);gender of the student (Nwafor, 2009); as well as test anxiety (Omotere, 2011) as traditional predictors of examination malpractices among students. Other predictors of examination malpractices that have equally received the attention of scholars include peer group pressure, poor study habit, and fear of failure. However, social media has received little or no attention by scholars.

Social media is defined as “the relationships that exist between network of people” (Qingya, Wei & Yu, 2011: 3). Social media emerged as a term frequently used to describe different types of electronic communication platforms. The availability of high speed internet broadband connection with massive use of desktop computers, laptops, e-readers, tablets and smart phones enable millions of undergraduates to actively engage in social networking, text messaging, blogging, content sharing, online learning, and much more.

Social media, as defined by Bryer and Zavatarro (2011: 327), “are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration, and enable deliberation across stakeholders”. These technologies now include blogs, wikis, media (audio, photo, video, text) sharing tools, networking platforms, and virtual worlds. Social Media Online (2011) defines social media as primarily internet-and mobile-based tools for sharing and discussing information by users. The term, according to Andreas and Michael (2010: 61), refers to “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.” Web 2.0 was coined by  Darcy DiNucci in 1999 to describe interactive social websites which allow users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue.

A growing number of Nigerian scholars agree that addiction to social media sites are potentially a disruptive technology to students’ academic work in higher education. Among them is Oluwatoyin (2011: 13) who surveyed 1,860 Facebook users from the Lagos State University and found that most of the students could not get cumulative grade point average (CGPA) above 3.50 because they’ve spent large part of their time on social media than on their home work and study time which could contribute to higher grade. Oluwatoyin’s findings is further supported by Ajewole and Fasola (2011: 69) whose study of 884 students from eight higher institutions in Oyo State showed that majority of them spend more time on social media at the detriment of their studies.

This view is however rejected by some researchers who acknowledge that social media sites not only re-engage learners with their studies but also enhance their academic performance. For instance, Onyeka, Sajoh & Bulus (2013:39) argue that the frequent use of social media sites has no negative effect on the students’ studies. In the same vein, Ogedebe, Emmanuel & Musa (2012: 788) posited that Facebook usage does not have adverse effect on the academic work of students in the Universities.

While the present study is not burdened with the direct effect of social media usage on undergraduates’ CGPA, its primary focus is centered how social media usage predicts examination malpractices among students.


 1.2       Statement of the problem

Many educators and educationists such Adesina (2006), Anwabor (2006), Bamwo (2006) and Jekayinfa (2006) have written on many aspects of examination dishonesty in the Nigerian education system. However, none of them has written on how the usage of social media affects examination fraud. They also did not discuss how the introduction of ICT tools can help curb examination fraud in Nigeria. This study has attempted to fill that gap.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to examine the implication of social media usage on examination malpractice among students in Nigeria. Specifically, the study will:

 i.            Examine the social of social media tools on students’ study time.

 ii.        To ascertain the reasons why social media is adopted by student        for examination malpractice.

 iii.            Investigate strategies which students’ apply when using social media for examination malpractice.

 iv.            To ascertain the social media tools that are mostly adopted for examination malpractice

1.4       Research questions

 i.            Which social media tool is the most potent that is often adopted by students for malpractice?

  ii.            Has social media usage affected students’ reading schedules?

iii.            What strategies are adopted by students when using the social media for examination malpractice?

1.5   Research hypothesis


1.6       Scope of the study

This research work is based on social media as predictor of examination malpractice among student. The population consists of 200 students in four faculties at Olabisi Onabanjo University (OOU). Specifically, the literature discusses the variables vis-à-vis examination malpractices prevalent among students. It does not however extend to all the methods used by students to carry out examination malpractices but are based on the use of social media tools for exam fraud.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This research work will suggest to the government, the need to expand the scope of their policies on examination malpractice to make provision for examination malpractices that are perpetrated through social media tools.

It will further enlighten the school management and supervisors to the growing trend of social media usage and how it is been used for examination malpractices and how to curb their students’ from indulging it to perpetrate malpractice.

It will enlighten parents on the need for them to be sensitive, pay attention, to caution and regulate the manner in which their children use social media tools which will help to reduce the prevalence of examination malpractice.

Definition of Terms


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Family Background, School Location and Peer Group as Predictors of Juvenile Delinquency among Secondary School Students


Socio-criminologists overtime have been engaged in analyzing juvenile delinquency as a concept, as well as establishing causal factors with the aim of prescribing effective measures of control.  An overview of juvenile delinquency in Nigeria points towards several casual factors such as the family background, school environment, peer group influence, home location and even the negative messages derived from the mass media.

Studies have revealed that family is a major predictor of delinquency (Breivik, Olweus, Endersen, 2009; Mandara and Murray, 2006).  According to Simons, Simons and Wallace (2004) children in single-parent homes are more likely to be delinquent. there is evidence to suggest that single-parent families, especially single-mothers, expect less of their children, spend less time monitoring them and use less effective techniques to discipline them. This means that children have greater opportunities and motivation to participate in delinquent acts than do those living in a two-parent family. Hence, the absence of one parent is a major predictor for juvenile delinquency (Mack et al., 2006).

Also, the idea that many schools are delinquency-producing agencies is fundamentally based on two types of accusations:(1) the school’s failure as a socialization agency- this refers to the school’s inability to inculcate upon students the necessary social skills that enable them to interact especially with peers and adults and (2) failure in academic subject may produce a situation in which students are frustrated and they (pupils) may turn into delinquent conduct.

The peer group may be viewed as an informal network of individuals of approximately the same age. Peers are thus individuals with whom a youth shares common problems and experiences. The peer group is a convenient structure which is suitable for needs of emotionally disturbed children who are unable to meet the demands required for participation in normal groups. The peer group is a crime predisposing factor as it creates opportunities outside family situation for children to commit crime.

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