Chapter One: Introduction

            Thousands of militants, grouped under different names such as The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), the Ijaw Youth Council (lYC) and Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), and recently Niger Delta Avengers, etc, have over the years carried out multiple attacks on strategic oil and gas installations in the Niger Delta region. Niger Delta transverses nine of the thirty six states of Nigeria, namely: Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo, and Rivers (Obi, 2005). Most of the oil exploration so far had been at the core Niger Delta states of Beyelsa, Delta and Rivers. These three states had witnessed the major crises in the region. However, on 26 June 2009, the Federal Government of Nigeria announced that it would grant an amnesty and unconditional pardon to militants in the Niger Delta. A 60-day period was allowed for armed youths to surrender their weapons in return for training and rehabilitation by the government. The Amnesty officially resulted in the demobilisation of 30,000 militants, paying them allowances and providing training for a smaller number. It has markedly reduced conflict in the region.

Patterns of militant attacks on oil installations, hostage taking and direct confrontations with Nigerian security agencies have drawn both local and international attention to their deplorable situation through their restiveness. The Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF), founded by Alhaji Mujahid Asari-Dokubo, and the Niger Delta Vigilante (NDV), created by Ateke Tom, led more than 100 other smaller armed groups to violently engage the Federal Government and multinational oil companies in a ‘war of attrition’(Ojakorotu & Olawale, 2009). Asari’s NDPVF launched a series of attacks on oil wells and installations, disrupting oil production. The militant groups also attempted to control oil resources through oil bunkering, an exercise that involves tapping pipelines. All of these have had damaging effects on oil production in the region and eventually led to shutting down of the Warri refineries several times (Akpabio & Akpan, 2010).

When Late Musa YarAdua assumed office as the nation’s president, he came up with his own idea of developing the Niger Delta, which he tagged “Niger Delta Development Plan”. He also set up the Ministry of Niger delta Affairs. Again, on 25 June 2009 he granted amnesty to the “militants” via Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) to turn in their weapons within sixty (60) days (Aaron, 2010). In addition, they militants were to renounce violence through the execution of renunciation of militancy form. The repentant militants were to be paid the sum of N65, 000 (about $430) per month for 42 months that the rehabilitation programme would cover. This is addition to daily feeding allowance of N1500 (about $10). Beyond disarmament, repentant militants are to undergo some form of skills acquisition to enable them live economically productive lives (Aaron, 2010).

Furthermore, the leaders of the militants, including Ekpemupolo (Tompolo), Henry Okah, Asari Dokubo, Fara Dagogo, Ebi Ben, Ateke Tom, Saboma Jackrich (alias Egberipapa), gave up their weapons. Tompolo and his group gave “117 assorted rifles, 5,467 rounds of live ammunitions, 20 camouflage bullet jacket, 26 camouflage uniform and two helmets. By official account, about 26,356 militants surrendered their arms at various disarmament centres. On the whole the total of 26,760 guns of different types 287,445 rounds of ammunition, 18 gun boats and 1090 dynamites were surrendered” (Omadjohwoefe, 2011:254).

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Conflict in oil rich regions is inevitable and pervasive in all kinds of human interactions at the national and local levels. How it is managed (and mismanaged) has strong effects on national security and development. This chapter examines theories of conflict management and review of relevant literature on conflict management, amnesty programme and scholarly assessment of the amnesty programme from conflict management approach.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were also made in chapter five.



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Chapter One: Introduction

Nigeria-Cameroon is historically seen within the purview of the border dispute over Bakassi Peninsula. The Peninsula has been a bone of contention between the two countries dating back to the colonial period. On august 6th 1861, an agreement was concluded between King Dosumu and the British Crown in which the latter agreed to cede Lagos to the British Crown and by 1862, Lagos was proclaimed a colony. In the same vein, on September 10, 1884, similar agreement was signed between the kings and chiefs of old Calabar and the British government. In this agreement, the British government agreed to protect all the territories controlled by the Obong of Calabar, and true enough, Bakassi was one of these territories. The Bakassi was under the jurisdiction of the Efik Kingdom as at the time (September 10, 1884) when the agreement was signed.

However, the political and commercial hegemony enjoyed by Britain in the West African Coast was challenged by the Germans on July 14th, 1884 under the German Consul General, Dr. Nachtigal who entered into treaty agreement with two Douala chiefs. This was followed by hoisting of German flags in Douala and Bimba which belonged to Cameroon. Although Germany by 1880 has had contacts with the Cameroonian people, one could say that Cameroon as a political entity came into existence by virtue of the treaty mentioned above. Thus, the identification of Cameroon as a political unit in this area brought to the fore the question of demarcation of spheres of influence between Britain and Germany, thus leading to the establishment of boundaries. Thus, this development marked the beginning of rivalry and conflict between Britain and Germany over their colonial possessions and which was eventually inherited by the two West African Countries even after independence.

Hostilities and military confrontations broke out in the early 1990s between Cameroon and Nigeria. In 1994, Cameroon asked the International Court of Justice (ICJ), also known as the World Court, to settle a dispute over its boundary with Nigeria, especially the question of sovereignty over the Bakassi peninsula, and over islands in Lake Chad, and to specify the course of the land and maritime boundary between the two countries.
After eight years of adjudication, the Court delivered its judgment on the merits of the case on 10th October 2002, deciding, in part, that sovereignty over the Bakassi peninsula and in the disputed area in the Lake Chad region lies with Cameroon. To help implement this decision in a peaceful manner, President Paul Biya of Cameroon and President Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria asked the Secretary-General to set up a Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission chaired by the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for West Africa, Mr. Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah, to consider ways of following up on the ICJ ruling and moving the process forward.

Today, Bakassi peninsula is governed by Cameroon, following the transfer of sovereignty from neighbouring Nigeria as a result of a judgment by the International Court of Justice. On 22 November 2007, the Nigerian Senate rejected the transfer, since the Green Tree Agreement ceding the area to Cameroon was contrary to Section 12(1) of the 1999 Constitution. Regardless, the territory was transferred to Cameroon on 14 August 2008.

Chapter Two: Historical Overview of Bakassi Peninsula
The controversy over Bakassi was who owns the Bakassi – Nigeria or Cameroon? It is this debate that has generated a lot of problem. This chapter historicizes where Bakassi was actually located at the period of partition by in the 19th century

Chapter Three: Nigeria-Cameroon Relations Over Bakassi Since Independence
This chapter examines Nigeria-Cameroon relations in the post-independence era. The major causes of conflict will be examined while efforts will be made to discuss how the dispute over Bakassi made their relations to be sore in the 20th century.

Chapter Four: The ICJ Judgment: Implication And Assessment
In this chapter, the researcher analysed how the crisis generated by the political disagreement and military confrontation between Nigeria and Cameroon over the Bakassi peninsula led Cameroon on march 29, 1999 and on June 6, 1999 to file an application instituting proceedings against Nigeria at the ICJ which related to the question of sovereignty over the Bakassi peninsula and over a part of the territory of Cameroon in the area of lake Chad. These suits in addition to a counter-memorial filed by Nigeria between June and October 1998, set the tone for the various legal proceedings by both Nigeria and Cameroon in the International Court of Justice (ICJ), but which eventually culminated in the final ICJ decision on October 10, 2002 in favour of Cameroon. This chapter accesses the implication of the ICJ judgment on Nigeria-Cameroon relations.





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Chapter One: Introduction
Teaching is a task that involves both the teacher and the learner. The teacher and the learner have much to gain from each other. For teaching to be effective the teacher requires both audio and visual aids that would enable his activity be more effective and realistic. This is why instructional materials become very relevant to the teacher and to the task of teaching in secondary schools.

The main difficulty for the successful implementation of instructional materials is not a shortage of hardware, but rather the fact that many Biology teachers are not ready to use technology in the classroom. In fact, many teachers feel that teaching and learning do not necessarily need to be accompanied by the use of instructional materials Azikiwe (1998), Williams (1990) and Kolo (2006) have noted the above mentioned observation. Teaching and learning therefore appears very abstract and difficult for the learners as they use their audio sense only. It has been observed that teachers find it a herculean task to accompany their lessons with relevant instructional media such as audio aids, visual aids and audio-visual aids.

This is perhaps due to laziness, or lack of resourcefulness or lack of innovativeness or gross incompetence of the teachers. Whichever is the case, this lack of proper use of instructional media constitutes a great deal of problem for effective teaching and learning of the subject. Unfortunately, few studies have been carried out on the teacher’s use of instructional materials in Biology and secondary school students’ academic performance.

Chapter Two: Literature Review
This chapter focuses on the literature review; the importance of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Biology; the problems faced by Biology teachers in using instructional materials effectively; the attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials in Biology

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the impact of the use of instructional materials on the academic performance of students in Biology using Lagos State as case study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Simple percentage was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were made in chapter five.

1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Instructional Material as a Concept
2.3 The Functions of Instructional Materials
2.4 Classification of Instructional Materials
2.5 The Problems Faced By Biology Teachers in Using Instructional Materials
2.6 The Attitude of Teachers towards the Use of Instructional Materials in Biology
2.7 Impact of the Use of Instructional Materials Students’ Performance
2.8 Appraisal of Literature

3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations

Impact Of The Use Of Instructional Materials On The Academic Performance Of Students In Biology


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Influence of Parental Involvement and Peer Group on the Academic Performance of Students: Case Study of Some Selected Schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State

1.1      Background to the Study

           There have been several studies done within and outside Nigeria on the effects of parenting involvement as well as the socio-economic status of parents on the academic achievement of students.  Research has found many factors that influence how well a student does in school and the amount of confidence the students have for themselves. However, in Nigeria, like other growing economies, families are finding it more difficult to stay connected with their children’s education. This is most common to families living in mega cities such as Lagos where both parents work outside of the home. Carmen (2007) noted that the extended family has become significantly less extended as mobility has increased. Parents are becoming isolated from their children and finding it difficult to keep a careful watch on what needs to be done to help them succeed in school. Many families are not even led by a parent, but by a grandparent, guardian, or some other adult.

Prior to this time, in what is sometimes called a traditional Nigerian family environment, parents were able to monitor the school work of their children carefully  and actively participated in Parents-Teachers Associations purposely to monitor the progress of their children. Report cards were valued and trusted in the home as an accurate reflection of academic achievement. Parents were able to keep in touch with the school and the life of their children in the school, and to monitor success or lack thereof. When children came home from school, homework was completed, assignments finished, and other school works were done.

With the changes in family life and indeed in societal makeup, schools are now finding it increasingly difficult to keep parents informed of and  actively engaged in the day-to-day progress of their children (Deslandes & Bertrand,  2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is not there, because the parents are not home to insist that students complete their assignments.

It must be noted that while there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to progress academically, Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students academic performance. The family background of the student, however is the most important factor that affects the student’s academic performance. In view of this, Hussain (2006) noted that secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor shows how important the family is to academic achievement of students in secondary schools as well as the centrality of parents to the academic performance of students.

Parental involvement in students’ education has been a major topic of study for the later part of the twentieth century.  Baumrind (1971) has been credited for defining three specific parental involvement and their consequences for children. These are (a) authoritative, (b) authoritarian, and (c) permissive involvement of parents in children’s schooling based on levels of warmth and control used by the parent in disciplining the child.  According to Baumrind (1991), parental involvement is meant to capture normal variations in parents attempts to socialize children.  Parental involvement can be both supportive and unsupportive in their tone, both of which affect developmental outcomes and consequences to personality development. Baumrind described how parental involvement affect measures of competence, achievement, and social development.

Although, students are primarily the ones for whom curricula are designed, textbooks are written, and schools built, parents are primarily the ones held responsible for preparing students for learning – preparation physically, psychologically, behaviorally, attitudinally, emotionally, and motivationally, just to name a few.

Over the years, numerous theories and associated constructs have been formulated and have evolved to describe and explain these two independent variables, that is, parents and students. For example, the behavioral learning theories of Thorndike, Watson, Skinner and, Hull, the cognitive learning theories of Piaget, Kolhberg, and Vygotsky, and the social learning theories of Bandura, have been used to pose and answer questions about students and parents. Dornbusch (1996), found empirical evidence of what most parents and educators know from experience – that parents have a strong influence on secondary school students.

In ways similar to the community, the peer group becomes an agency of enculturation and learning. Even very young children develop a sense of self from their perceptions of important people in their surroundings, including relatives, teachers, and peers. Socioeconomic status, ethnic identity, and parents’ occupations affect how families view themselves and the process by which they socialize their children (Bornstein, 2002). Later, as children leave the home setting, their self-perception and socializing skills become influenced by how their peers view them. When children move out from family to child-care centers, school, and the community at large, they begin to form attachments, and friendships emerge through their play. These relationships influence behavior. Even infants and toddlers are observed reacting to other infants by touching them, by crying when others cry, and later by offering nurturance or comfort. By about age three, early friendships begin to form and children’s peers begin to have a  more lasting influence (Parke, 1990).

Peer influence on behavior gradually becomes more dominant. Harris (2002) maintained that peer groups have an even stronger influence than that of parents, although that extreme position has been refuted by other researchers (Berk, 2005). Gradually, children discover that others can share  their feelings or attitudes or have quite different ones. The perspectives of others will affect how children feel about their own families. Children usually have a “family” view of their own and of other cultures. So, when confronted with other perspectives, they often need to rethink their own viewpoints. It is often difficult for children to adjust to the idea that other families can function radically differently from their own and yet hold many of the same attitudes and beliefs and be equally nurturing and secure. The peer group serves as a barometer for children examining themselves and their feelings about self and family.

The peer group also influences development of children’s socializing skills. These early friendships help children learn how to negotiate and relate to others, including their siblings and other family members. They learn from peers how to cooperate and socialize according to group norms and group-sanctioned modes of behavior.

The peer group can influence what the child values, knows, wears, eats, and learns. The extent of this influence, however, depends on other situational constraints, such as the age and  personality of children and the nature of the group (Harris, 1998; Hartup, 1983).

The aforementioned studies are not the only ones that speak to the issue of parenting involvement and peer group inlfuence, but, here, serve only as a way of introducing the broader sphere. In this present study, parenting involvement and peer group was studied in reference to its influence on the academic performance of students’  in secondary school.


 1.2 Statement of the Problem

Although, scholars have identified the correlation between parental and peer group influences on children academic performance in the primary school, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their academics. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between parenting style, socio-economic status of parents and peer group influence on secondary school students’ academic performance.

1.3. Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study was to examine the influence of parenting style  and socio-economic status on students’ academic performance. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine the correlation between parental involvement and academic performance of students in secondary school
  2. Examine the relationship between peer group pressure and academic performance of adolescents
  3. Investigate the effects of the socio-economic status of parents on student’s academic performance;
  4. Examine the perceptions of students towards their parents in regards to parenting style and their academic performance.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What relationship exists between the type of parental involvement and secondary school student academic achievement?
  2. Do socio-economic and educational background of parents affect their involvement in their children in secondary schools?
  3.  Do parenting style and parental involvement directly affect students academic performance?
  4.  Do peer group affect the academic performance of students?


1.5 Research Hypotheses

H01: There is no statistically significant difference between parental involvement and academic performance of students in secondary school.

H02: There is no significant difference between peer group pressure and academic performance of adolescents

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study was limited by a convenience sample of approximately twenty (20) students from five secondary schools and 20 (twenty) parents (comprising of teachers with children)  from Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State. The sample was limited to students in secondary school from Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State.

Apart from the shortage of fund and time frame, the following limits were found in the study:

  1. It is recognized that not every parent will fit neatly into a particular parenting style.  These parent-child pairs will be discarded from the sample.
  2. Some children will rate their parents as fair when in actuality they are not, therefore there will be some bias in the parents nominations.
  3. It is recognized that a parenting style may be chosen by a family due need rather than desire.
  4. The study was limited to the students whose parents gave consent for their participation, as well as, receiving the students’ assent.
  5. The accuracy of the data was limited by the skills of the researcher and validity of the tests administered.


1.7 Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic performance. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It has provide empirical evidence to schools, parents, and students about the nature of parental involvement and how it affects the academic performance of students
  1. It offers a reference for future research that might investigate the same variables.

1.7 Operational Definition of Primary Variables

Parent:  The term parent as used in this study includes, in addition to a natural  parent, a legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis, such as a grandparent or  stepparent with whom the child lives, or a person who is legally responsible for a child’s welfare.

Parental Involvement: any form of verbal or non-verbal communication or assistance in reference to a child’s homework.

Parenting Style: The overall emotional climate of the parent-child relationship- an affective context of sorts that sets the tone for the parents interactions with the child.

Student academic achievement: This term refers to the student’s overall average  in science, social studies, English, and math, expressed as a percent grade. 

Peer group: A peer group is a primary group of people, typically informal, who share a similar or equal status and who are usually or roughly the same age, tended to travel around and interact within the social aggregate

Peer influence:  peer influence can be described as the pressure adolescents feel from their peers. Also, it can be the pressure planned or unplanned.

Adolescence: refers to the transitory period where a child moves to adulthood. The adolescent years fall within 12-18 years.


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