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CAUSES OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES

There are evidences that many students engage in examination malpractices. We have successfully conducted a study on the causes of examination malpractices among students.  “Age, Sex And Test Anxiety As Predictors Of Examination Malpractices Among Secondary School Students” 

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Impact of Principals’ Motivation Techniques on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1       Background to the Study

This study investigates the relationship between teachers’ motivation and student’s academic performance using some selected junior secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. Studies have shown that teachers’ satisfaction with school leadership determines their involvement and commitment to duty (Silins & Mulford, 2002). Teachers’ job satisfaction, learning and development in Nigeria have called for school leadership that is transformational in adoption of different motivational techniques. Studies have revealed high level of teacher satisfaction and learning in school systems where transformational leadership is implemented (Silins & Mulford, 2002). Previous investigations on teachers’ job satisfaction revealed that lack of effective motivation on the part of the school principals’, the school facilities and the government negatively affects teachers’ job satisfaction and at the long run have a negative impact on the academic performance of the student. (Bogler, 2002).

Some junior secondary school teachers had expressed dissatisfaction with their work due to unconducive environment created by administrative flaws (Bolger, 2002). It also has been revealed that teachers feel dissatisfied in school environments that do not provide opportunities for teacher development (Conley, Bas-Isaac & Brandon, 1998). These problems, coupled with the challenges of global economy pose a major concern to the government and boards of education. Principals therefore are required to exhibit appropriate motivational techniques as well as leadership skills to motivate teachers to maximize input, which might be expressed in teacher commitment to duty and student achievement.

  Student achievement is expected to be high to satisfy parents and stakeholders, and to match with the present world of technology. Teachers’ dissatisfaction at work place has been seen to be one of the problems drawing this dream away from reality (Zembylas & Papanastasiou, 2004). The quest for teachers’ motivation and job satisfaction for effective classroom instruction is a major issue facing Nigeria today.

Aghenta, (2000) asserts that some external factors, such as bad roads (leading to the schools), lack of funds, poor infrastructures and instructional materials deter the efforts of teachers. Aka (2001) blames it on dubious  legacies of military  rule and the neglect of education in the second republic. Olumfemi (1976) focuses attention on poor payment of teachers and lack of instructional materials as responsible for low job satisfaction of teachers and poor performance of students, while Fafunwa (1974) pointed accusing fingers at lack of financial assistance. Hence, how  effective  the  principal  is  in  motivating their teachers has been  a  matter  of  concern  to many educationists (Ige, 2001).

It  is  therefore  not  surprising  that  there  is  pressure mounted  on  effective  leadership  among  principals  of secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. It seems how-ever that many principals have not considered their styles of  leadership  as  determinants  of  teachers’  job  satisfaction among teachers in their schools. Hence, some of them seem to find  it  difficult  to  effectively  administer  their  schools (Adeyemi,  2004).

As  such,  leadership style occupies an important position in school management in Plateau State, Nigeria. The school principal is in a unique  position  as  the  manager  or  administrator  who controls schools’ resources for  the  purpose  of  attaining organizational goals.  Hence, the aspects of motivational techniques to be studied include:  Shared decision-making, professional development of teachers, use of merit based rewards and recognition of teachers performance.

Teachers have both intrinsic and extrinsic needs. A teacher who is intrinsically motivated may be observed to undertake a task for its own sake, for the satisfaction it provides or for the feeling of accomplishment and self-actualization. On the other hand, an extrinsically motivated teacher may perform the activity/duty in order to obtain some reward such as salary. Extrinsic motivation plays an important part in people’s life. It is pre-eminent in influencing a person’s behaviour. Therefore, the aim of a school should be to build on and enhance the intrinsic motivation for teachers to teach effectively and at the same time, to supply some extrinsic motivation along the way for school improvement (O’neil, 1995).

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Based on past literature, motivation has many separate ingredients. Maslow, Herzberg, Vroom, Lawler, McGregor, and Bandura, among others, described theories which help to explain a person’s motivation. Measuring motivation for teachers is complicated since there are many facets to motivation.  Today’s businesses are encouraged to work in teams and produce high quality products at the lowest price possible. In the same vein, teachers should also be encouraged to work in teams and produce high quality students like their business counterparts.

Since studies are yet to be comprehensively carried out on the impact of principals’ motivation techniques on teachers’ job satisfaction which this study seeks to examine within the Nigerian context.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between principals’ motivation techniques and teacher’s job satisfaction. The specific objectives are to:

i)  Find out the extent to which principals’ motivation techniques predict teachers’ job satisfaction.

ii) Analyze principals who award monetary incentives more likely to use motivational techniques in working with teachers than those which were not awarding monetary incentives

iii) Examine whether there is any significant difference in teachers’ job performance in schools having principals using positive motivational techniques and  schools  having  principals’ using autocratic technique

iv) Discuss the various leadership  style  is  most  commonly  used  by school  principals  in  senior  secondary  schools

1.4       Research Questions

i.    To what extent do principals’ motivation techniques predict teachers’ job satisfaction?

ii.  Do principals who award monetary incentives more likely to use motivational techniques in working with teachers than those which were not awarding monetary incentives?

iii.  Is there any significant difference in teachers’ job performance in schools having principals using positive motivational techniques and  schools  having  principals’ using autocratic technique?

iv.    Which  leadership  style  is  most  commonly  used  by school  principals  in  junior secondary  schools  in   Nigeria?

1.5       Research Hypothesis

Ho1      There is no significant difference between principals’ motivation techniques and teachers’ job satisfaction

Ho2.     There is no significant difference between principals who award monetary incentives more likely to use motivational techniques in working with teachers and those which were not awarding monetary incentives?

1.6       Significance of the Study

For the past three decades, leadership, teachers’ job satisfaction and academic standards in the Nigerian secondary schools have deteriorated (Bassey, 1999). There have been strong feelings about  the types of leadership styles and motivation techniques and the need to review them. Investigating the relationship between principals’ motivation techniques in motivating their teachers towards job satisfaction might go a long way in helping researchers in their efforts to review some of the administrative problems besieging the Nigerian schools.

This study will be of help to the ministry of education in Nigeria by enabling them to examine the administrative governance of schools as it affects job satisfaction of secondary school teachers. It is also anticipated that this study will help educators see the need for adjustments and flexibility in school administration. It is intended that this study  will provide some insights for researchers in the field of educational leadership in their search for solutions to some of the administrative problems besieging the Nigerian secondary schools.

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In  this  regard,  it  will  be  useful  for  other  researchers  who might want to carry out research in related areas.

 

1.7             Scope of the Study

The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between principals’ motivation techniques and teachers’ job satisfaction using some selected secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State.

1.8       Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary sschools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State as the title suggest.

1.9       Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined as they apply to this study:

Job satisfaction is defined as how well a person likes his or her job

Principal motivational techniques – Methods which a principal may use to motivate teachers such as shared decision-making, goal-setting, professional development, and a belief in the teacher’s ability to perform the desired tasks.

School-based performance award – An award system for teachers, which encourages collaborative work of a school to r each specific performance goals.

Motivation: Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas.

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INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON UNDERGRADUATES’ PERCEPTION OF COURTSHIP AND ITS’ RELATIONSHIP WITH PRE-MARITAL SEX

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the influence of demographic factors on undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex using the University of Abuja, Abuja as case study. Demographic factors identified in the study were family background, university environment, peers and social media. These factors were examined to determine their influence on the perception of undergraduates‘ toward courtship and pre-marital sex. Questionnaire was constructed to test the hypotheses formulated. Simple percentage statistical tool was employed to analyse the variables. Based on the findings, it was discovered that family background, peers, university environment and social media have direct impact on students’ perception of courtship and subsequently, their engagement in risky sexual behaviours. Recommendations were made to address the problems associated with pre-marital sex among undergraduates in Nigeria.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 1.1       Background to the Study

University campuses offer a unique environment for students either to pursue a traditional courtship style or engage in a courtship style that is driven by pre-marital sexual intercourse. Several studies have been carried out on what influences students choice of courtship style in the university (Bogle, 2008; Glenn & Marquardt, 2001; and Knudson-Martin and Mahoney, 2009). These studies indicate that young men and women are more frequently engaging in casual sex or what is known as ‘campus courtship’ or ‘hooking up’ than the traditional courtship where lovers are not to engage in pre-marital sex. Hooking up carries a level of ambiguity but has been generally defined as a sexual encounter, anything from kissing to having sex, especially between young men and women without implying any marital commitment.

The large percentage of divorces each year, non-marital pregnancies and pre-marital sex has all dramatically changed the traditional family structure. Courtship which was a trend that has been present for decades in Nigeria became popular as a result of western education. Courtship among undergraduates has changed the realm of male and female interaction as it used to be in the traditional African society. Prior to the colonial era, men had to call upon women and be invited to visit the woman’s home under strict supervision from the family. This type of courtship was a form of traditional courtship that had very clearly delineated guidelines that, men and women were expected to follow. However, western education has totally redefined how young men and women court before getting married. The university environment provides the opportunity for young individuals to go out to places away from the watchful eyes of the family and community members and engage in another kind of campus courtship popularly known as ‘hooking up’.

Several demographic factors such as the mass media, the social media, internet, peers, changing family traditions, money, the university environment, among others affects how young men and women participate in courtship alongside modern social changes. The influence of these demographic factors on undergraduates’ sexual behavior, particularly in the areas of courtship and its relationship with premarital sex, deserves scholarly attention.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Literature regarding the impact of demographic factors on undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex is limited. This research seeks to fill the vacuum by examining whether demographic factors with special reference to peers, university environment, family background and the social media have any significant effect on undergraduates’ perceptions of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex.

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the influence of demographic factors on the perceptions of undergraduates towards courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex. The general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Assess undergraduates’ perceptions of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex
  2. Examine undergraduates’ perceptions of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex
  3. Investigate how the family background influence the perception of university students towards courtship
  4. Examine how the social media influence the perception of university students towards courtship
  5. Examine how the university environment influence the perception of university students towards courtship
  6. Examine how peers influence the perception of university students towards courtship

1.4       Justification of the Study

This study proposes to investigate undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex. This is justified because perceptions are known to affect behavior. Undergraduates’ sexual behavior, especially in relation to pre-marital sex could be as a result of their perceptions toward courtship. The study therefore sets out to investigate how demographic factors influence this perception through the existing literature and the testing of the formulated hypotheses.

 1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions will be addressed by this study:

i.  To what extent does undergraduates’ perception of courtship affect their desire to engage in pre-marital sex?

ii.     Would there be any significant relationship between family background and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

iii.      Does the university environment have any impact on undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

iv.        Would there be any significant relationship between the university environment and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

v.        Would there be any significant relationship between social media and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

vi.            Would there be any significant relationship between peers and undergraduates’ perception of courtship?

1.6       Research Hypotheses

Ho1 There is no significant difference between undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex.

Ho2 There is no significant difference between family background and undergraduates’ perception of courtship

Ho3 There is no significant difference between university environment and undergraduates’ perception of courtship

Ho4 There is no significant difference between social media and undergraduates’ perception of courtship

 1.7   Significance of the Study

A major concern in Nigerian universities today is the issue of unwanted pregnancy, high rate of abortion, reported cases of HIV/AIDS, etc all of which negatively affects the smooth running of individual academic programme. One of the ways to find solution to this problem is to address the issue of students’ perception of courtship and pre-marital sex. Going by this, it becomes important to discuss the perception of young adults toward courtship and subsequently pre-marital sex.

The study is therefore significant for the following reasons:

  1. This study will be useful to both male and female undergraduates who are either into courtship or are intending to start afresh.
  2. It will also help young people in understanding each other during courtship which important for those who intend to get married.
  3. Since this study examines the perception of students toward courtship, it will assist them to make informed decisions in their relationship.
  4. Lastly, it will assist other researchers who might want to conduct similarly study.

 1.8   Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the influence of demographic factors on undergraduates’ perception of courtship and its relationship with pre-marital sex using the University of Abuja, Abuja as case study. Two hundred (200) students from different faculties will be randomly selected for the study. The study covers a four year period, 2008 to 2012.

1.9 Definitions of Terms

Relative to this study, definitions to the following terms are provided in order to clarify each in the context of the topic:

Courtship- is the period in a couple’s relationship which precedes their engagement and marriage, or establishment of an agreed relationship of a more enduring kind.

Hooking up- is a term associated with the normative sexual behavior of university students today while historically it was perceived as a one-night stand or labeled as casual sex.

Marriage- also called matrimony or holy wedlock is a social union or legal contract between people (a man and a woman) that creates kinship. In Nigeria, marriage is recommended or compulsory for two opposite sex.

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THE INFLUENCE OF PEER GROUP PRESSURE ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE

ABSTRACT

It is well documented that peers exert influence on an adolescent’s sexual behavior. It is in the light of this that this study looks into the influence of peer group pressure on sexual behaviour of secondary school students in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State.  One hundred (100) students of mixed public secondary schools was used. Four research hypotheses were formulated. The findings show that there is correlation between peer group influence and permissive attitude toward sexual practices among secondary schools students. There was no difference in terms of age and sex. Boys tend to be more sexual active than girls, while involvement in sexual activity increased with age. The study established that peers exert great influence on the adolescent through various means.  These include exposure to pornographic films, pornographic magazines, romantic novels, and discussion of sexual issues. The study also discusses the dangers of this situation for the adolescents. The study recommends that relevant sexuality and reproductive health information should be provided to adolescents through joint effort by parents, counselors and educators so as to enlighten them on the dangers of pre-marital sex.