INFLUENCE OF METACOGNITION, SELF-EFFICACY AND LEARNING STRATEGIES ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
This study investigates the ariables of metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies as they affect the academic achievement of secondary school students in Biology (Adewole, 2001). . The research derives its motivation from the behavioural theories which posit that every young child develop a sense of self from their perceptions of important people in their surroundings, including relatives, teachers, and peers. Thus, metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies affect the process by which children learn (Bornstein, 2002). It is on this basis that the factors metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies are examined in the light of linking them with the adolescent worldview, bevahiour as well as performance.

In the Biology classroom, students are called upon to reflect on concrete examples and associate these with abstract theories. Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them (Flaell as cited in Dantonio and Beisenherz, 2001). Quite simply, metacognition is thinking about thinking. Any process in which students examine the Method that they are using to retrieve, develop or expand information is deemed to be metacognitive in nature. Therefore, questions generated by the teacher would be considered metacognitive in nature if the questions invoke the process used to arrive at a response rather than soliciting a correct answer based on the student’s memory of the material.

Research on metacognition and academic performance or achievement of children with learning problems seems to indicate that this is a relatively new field. The study During adolescence, the amount of influence that the variables of metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies have on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Biology cannot be overemphasized. The ways and manners by which metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies affects adolescents academic performance needs to be researched and documented. This will assist parents and counselors to understand the patterns and ways to curb negative influence.

While scholars have identified the correlation between learning strategy and self efficacy on students’ academic performance in the primary school, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their academics. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies influence on adolescents academic performance to school.

Chapter Two: Literature Review                                                                                           Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies influence on adolescents academic performance to school.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies of students using Lagos State as case study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations linking the relationship between metacognition, self-efficacy and learning strategies of students were made.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Metacognition and Academic Achievement
2.3 Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement
2.4 Learning Strategies and Academic Achievement

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

INFLUENCE OF METACOGNITION, SELF-EFFICACY AND LEARNING STRATEGIES ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

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The Influence of Home Environment on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nigeria

Abstract

This study examined the impact of parental involvement on the academic performance of secondary school students using some selected schools in Ago-Iwoye Metropolis, an area of Ogun State as case study. Forty respondents comprising twenty students and twenty parents were randomly selected from the study area. Two hypotheses were developed to test the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school. Questionnaire was used to gather data on gender, age, students’ study skills, socio-economic status of parents, and family description. To determine parenting style, parents completed the Parental Involvement and Dimension Questionnaire. Data was analyzed using chi square. Also, as hypothesized, academic performance of students in the selected schools was significantly positively correlated with a good home environment in the students’ education. The research contends that parental involvement at all grade levels can assist in the academic and behavioral performance of students. Hence, it is suggested that similar research with relevant research methodology should be used in carrying out research in other states of the Federation to ascertain the degree of conformity which this research have on the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1   Background to the Study                        

                   There have been several studies done within and outside Nigeria on the effects of home environment as well as the socio-economic status of parents on the academic achievement of students (Ajila  & Olutola,  2007; Uwaifo, 2012).  Research has found many factors that influence how well a student does in school and the amount of confidence the students have for themselves. However, in Nigeria, like other growing economies, families are finding it more difficult to stay connected with their children’s education. This is most common to families living in mega cities such as Lagos where both parents work outside of the home. Carmen (2007) noted that the extended family has become significantly less extended as mobility has increased. Parents are becoming isolated from their children and finding it difficult to keep a careful watch on what needs to be done to help them succeed in school. Many families are not even led by a parent, but by a grandparent, guardian, or some other adult.

                Prior to this time, in what is sometimes called a traditional Nigerian family environment, parents were able to monitor the school work of their children carefully  and actively participated in Parents-Teachers Associations purposely to monitor the progress of their children. Report cards were valued and trusted in the home as an accurate reflection of academic achievement. Parents were able to keep in touch with the school and the life of their children in the school, and to monitor success or lack thereof. When children came home from school, homework was completed, assignments finished, and other school works were done.

            With the changes in family life and indeed in societal makeup, schools are now finding it increasingly difficult to keep parents informed of and  actively engaged in the day-to-day progress of their children (Deslandes & Bertrand,  2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is not there, because the parents are not home to insist that students complete their assignments.

         It must be noted that while there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to progress academically, Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students academic performance. The family background of the student, however is the most important factor that affects the student’s academic performance. In view of this, Hussain (2006) noted that secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor shows how important the family is to academic achievement of students in secondary schools as well as the centrality of parents to the academic performance of students.

             Influence of home environment in students’ education has been a major topic of study for the later part of the twentieth century.  Baumrind (1971) has been credited for defining three specific parental involvement and their consequences for children. These are (a) authoritative, (b) authoritarian, and (c) permissive involvement of parents in children’s schooling based on levels of warmth and control used by the parent in disciplining the child.  According to Baumrind (1991), parental involvement is meant to capture normal variations in parents attempts to socialize children.  Parental involvement can be both supportive and unsupportive in their tone, both of which affect developmental outcomes and consequences to personality development. Baumrind described how parental involvement affect measures of competence, achievement, and social development.

         Although, students are primarily the ones for whom curricula are designed, textbooks are written, and schools built, parents are primarily the ones held responsible for preparing students for learning – preparation physically, psychologically, behaviorally, attitudinally, emotionally, and motivationally, just to name a few.

        Over the years, numerous theories and associated constructs have been formulated and have evolved to describe and explain these two independent variables, that is, home environment and students academic performance. For example, the behavioral learning theories of Thorndike, Watson, Skinner and, Hull, the cognitive learning theories of Piaget, Kolhberg, and Vygotsky, and the social learning theories of Bandura, have been used to pose and answer questions about students and parents. Dornbusch (1996), found empirical evidence of what most parents and educators know from experience – that parents have a strong influence on secondary school students.

        Steinberg and his colleagues conducted surveys, focus groups, and individual interviews with high school students and parents to better understand how parents, peers and communities influence students’ commitment to school.  The 10-year longitudinal study collected data from 20,000 students and 500 parents in nine ethnically diverse school and communities.  These researchers found that parents’ behaviors send clear and decisive messages about their thoughts and feelings on the importance of schooling.  They also found that parenting style helps or hinders a child’s engagement in school; that encouraging a child to do well in school or insisting that homework be completed were important forms of promoting engagement. These three tenets – communication, influence, and parenting style – are subsets of a larger domain, parental involvement.

           The aforementioned studies are not the only ones that speak to the issue of parenting involvement, but, here, serve only as a way of introducing the broader sphere. In this present study, home environment was studied in reference to its influence on the academic performance of students  in secondary school.

 1.2 Statement of the Problem

        Although, scholars have identified the correlation between parental influences on children academic performance in the primary school, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their academics. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between home environment, with particular reference to parenting style and socio-economic status of parents; and secondary school students’ academic performance.

 1.3. Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study was to examine the influence of home environment on students’ academic performance. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school;
  2. Examine factors determining the  home environment;
  3. Investigate the effects of the socio-economic status of parents on student’s academic performance;
  4. Examine the perceptions of students towards their parents in regards to parenting style and their academic performance.

1.4    Research Questions

  1. What relationship exists between the type of parental involvement and secondary school student academic achievement?

2.  Do socio-economic and educational background of parents affect their involvement in their children in secondary schools?

3       Do parenting style and parental involvement directly affect students academic performance?

4 Do perceptions of students about their parents affect their academic performance?

 1.5 Research Hypotheses

H01: There is no statistically significant difference between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school.

H02: There is no statistically significant difference between socio-economic and educational background of parents and involvement in their children’s education

 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study was limited by a convenience sample of approximately 20 (twenty) students from five secondary schools and 20 (twenty) parents from Ago-Iwoye Metropolis In Ogun State.

Apart from the shortage of fund and time frame, the following limits were found in the study:

1.  It is recognized that not every parent will fit neatly into a particular parenting style.  These parent-child pairs will be discarded from the sample.

2.  Some children will rate their parents as fair when in actuality they are not, therefore there will be some bias in the parents nominations.

3.  It is recognized that a parenting style may be chosen by a family due need rather than desire.

4.  The study was limited to the students whose parents gave consent for their participation, as well as, receiving the students’ assent.

5.  The accuracy of the data was limited by the skills of the researcher and validity of the tests administered.

 

1.7     Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic performance. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It has provide empirical evidence to schools, parents, and students about the nature of parental involvement and how it affects the academic performance of students
  2. It offers a reference for future research that might investigate the same variables.

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms

Home Environment: Home environment refers to aspects of peoples domestic lives that contribute to their living conditions. These factors may be physical (poverty, psychological conditions due to parenting; social circumstances (single parenting) or wider cultural patterns of life related to the location (Urban or rural environments).

Parent:  The term parent as used in this study includes, in addition to a natural  parent, a legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis, such as a grandparent or  stepparent with whom the child lives, or a person who is legally responsible for a child’s welfare.

 Parental Involvement: any form of verbal or non-verbal communication or assistance in reference to a child’s homework.

 Parenting Style: The overall emotional climate of the parent-child relationship- an affective context of sorts that sets the tone for the parents interactions with the child.

 Student academic achievement: This term refers to the student’s overall average  in science, social studies, English, and math, expressed as a percent grade. 

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SCHOOL LOCATIONAL VARIABLES AS DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 1.1              Background to the Study

 The relationship between school location and school effectiveness has been a perplexing one for educators.  Studies have found that the physical environment, locality of school in rural or urban area, socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, ethnic location of the school, overcrowded classrooms built near market centres, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, school plant planning, among others, are all school locational variables that significantly affect school effectiveness (Adewuyi, 2002; Ahmed,  2003; and Ijeoma, 2007)

School effectiveness in this context refers to the extent to which schools are able to accomplish their pre-determined objectives. School effectiveness transcends beyond students passing final examinations. It also encompasses students’ attainment in other domains of learning (the affective and the psychomotor domains). According to Bandele (2002), these other domains, apart from having influence on the cognitive achievement, also make the beneficiary of the education system live a fulfilled life and contribute meaningfully to the development of the society.

School effectiveness research started in the mid-1960s with the Coleman Report (Coleman et al. 1966) in the United States. Since then, there are three distinct but  inter-related  branches  of  school  effectiveness  research,  namely,  (a)  school  effects research – i.e.  scientific  properties  of  school  effects,  e.g.  the  size  of  school  effects,  (b) effective schools research – i.e. process oriented study of characteristics of effective schools, and  (c)  school  improvement  research – focusing  and  limiting  its  test  of  specific  models  of effective schools. It must be noted that most of school effectiveness research studies have traditionally come from USA, UK and some continental European countries, in particular, the Netherlands. Much is yet to be examined on the effects of school locational factors on school effectiveness in Nigeria.

Nigeria as a nation strives to experience real growth and development. This requires a clearly defined development strategy that allows intensive utilization of resources which is endowed. These resources are the various school physical facilities that are indispensable in the educational process. They include the sitting, the building and physical equipment, recreation places for the achievement of educational objectives (Oluchuckwu, 2000).

School location with its attendant features of instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in the teaching-learning process. The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location in the locality, within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These factors can adversely affect student behavior and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student.

Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic performance of students.

Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with student-teacher ratio, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in the classroom with student health problems, student behavior, and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2001; Johnson, 2001; Lyons, 2001;Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement these studies, the present research examines the aforementioned areas of school locational factors such as location of the school itself, class size, school facilities, and school population affect the effectiveness of schools in Nigeria.

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Emphasizing the importance of school location  to school effectiveness started with Coleman’s Report (Coleman et al. 1966) in the United States. Since then, various researches have been conducted on school effectiveness. These researches, however, were centred on the developed countries. With the exception of few works (Isaac  et al, 2010; Adewuyi, 2002; Ahmed,  2003; and Ijeoma, 2007), no serious attempt has been made to study how  school locational factors serve as determinants of school effectiveness in Nigerian secondary schools. It is on this basis that the present study seeks to unravel how location of the school itself, class size, school facilities, and school organization are structurally significant to an effective school.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The purposes of this study are:

  1. To examine the relationship between school location and school effectiveness
  2. To examine the impact of school facilities on the effectiveness of schools
  3. To explore factors such as class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibit students learning in the academic process of students in secondary school
  4. To investigate the extent to which school organization affects the effectiveness of the school

1.4     Research Questions

  1.    Is there any relationship between school location and school effectiveness?
  2.     To what extent do school facilities affect school effectiveness?
  3.   What effect does class size has on the academic performance of students in secondary school?
  4.  To what extent does school organization has on the effectiveness of the school?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

Ho1      There is no significant difference between school location and school effectiveness

Ho2      There is no significant difference between school facilities and school effectiveness

Ho3      There is no significant difference between class size and academic performance  of students

Ho4      There is no significant difference between school organization and school effectiveness

 1.6     Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that can aid the school to be effective in helping students to achieve their goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing these recommended factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with  many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic performance of student in secondary school.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on school locational factors as determinants ofschool effectiveness. This research work covers all public secondary schools students in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.

 1.8  Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary school in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State as the scope of the study suggest.

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