BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY AND THE POLITICAL-ECONOMY OF NORTHEASTERN NIGERIA 2009 -2017

Chapter One

Boko Haram operates as the world most deadly terrorist group, killing over 30,000 civilians and displaced 2,152,000 people in Nigeria, Chad and neighbouring Cameroon (IDMC, 2015). In its bid to counter the group’s insurgency, the Nigerian government launched series of counterinsurgency operations between 2010 and 2015, with varying degree of human rights abuses on both sides (Vanguard, 2016). For instance, since the insurgency escalated in 2009, the Nigerian military arrested over 20,000 suspected terrorists and arbitrarily tortured 8000 people to death (Amnesty Inernational, 2015). Similarly, Boko Haram has killed civilians and security personnel in cruel and horrofic ways (Samer, 2015).

Nigeria is politically divided into six geo-political zones. The northeast geo-political zone belongs to the Muslim north. This economically backward zone comprises of Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe states. The zone is home to Boko Haram terrorist group officially called Jamāʻat Ahl as-Sunnah lid-daʻwa wal-Jihād meaning, “People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad” (Ekereke 2013, p.5). Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, Boko Haram (which imply “western education is a sin”) first clashed with the Nigerian police in a 5-day battle in July, 2009 (Andrew 2012, p.1). This led to the death of the founder and emergence of Abubakar Shekau, as the leader of the group. Under Shekau’s leadership, Boko Haram has attacked churches, mosques, markets, schools, banks, barracks, homes and motor parks killing over 4000 thousand people and displacing close to half a million in the northeast (Crisis Group 2014, p. 2). This has had serious political and economic implications for the poverty stricken northeast zone.

Terrorist activities have strategic implications for national economic development. It is believed that terrorist operations can disintegrate the country as well as halt economic growth (ICG 2010, p.4). Continuous terrorist attacks are capable to undermining scientific and technological security of Nigeria. Many analysts have  described President  Goodluck  Jonathan’s  economic  reform  as  an  effort  that  may  yield  no  results due  to  the  insecurity  in the northeast (UNCTAD 2014; Utomi 2014; and Ajao, 2014). In other words, the problems with  the  nation’s economy  are directly linked to insecurity in the northeast. For instance, President Gooduck Jonathan went to Australia for a summit with about 500 delegates and could not attract foreign investors due to insecurity in the northeastern part of the country. He also went to France with about 300 delegates and could not woo foreign investors to the country. This line of argument is supported by Pat Utomi who opined that the issue of investment is also about the issue of security. No investor will come to invest in Nigeria with the current security challenge (Pat Utomi 2014, web).

In certain parts of Nigeria, there is currently an immense humanitarian crisis caused by several factors that have forced victims to flee, thereby turning them into refugees, while others have succumbed to the conditions and are considered internally displaced persons, making the economy of the region to become underdeveloped. Writing about Boko Haram is a difficult task, as researchers have very limited access to first-hand information. Indeed, foreign and national researchers find it almost impossible to conduct fieldwork in north-eastern Nigeria, where their security cannot be guaranteed. Recently, as the core of the conflict has seemed to be moving away from Maiduguri, capital of Borno, to the confines of Nigeria, the shores of Lake Chad and along the Cameroonian border, available information on the conflict has become even scarcer. Such difficulties contrast with the pressing demand of the Nigerian public and the international community alike for intelligible analyses of the situation, particularly from an economic development perspectives.

This study covers the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on Socio-Economic Development in northeastern states, Nigeria. The study therefore discusses the concept of terrorism, economy and politics. The analysis explores  why  internal  terrorism occurs in northeastern states of Nigeria, and the factors which facilitate this. The target population are those directly affected by the insurgency. The period covered is from 2009 to 2017.

Chapter Two   Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the Boko Haram Insurgency. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted. The theoretical framework will explain the tactics of Boko Haram which involve political assassinations, intimidation, assassinations of Muslim clerics, drive by shootings, kidnappings, suicide bombing, guerrilla warfare, bank robberies, attacks on churches, attacks on Muslims, attacks on universities, attacks on newspapers headquarters, and finally on international targets, most notably the UN.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of all IDPs who evolved as a result of Boko Haram in northeastern states. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis. The sample size of this project consist of one hundred and sixty (150) respondents randomly selected camps. The sampling procedure adopted in this study was simple random sampling technique. This method means that individuals in the population have an equal opportunity to be selected for the sample.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research questions and one  hypothesis formulated in chapter one.  In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis will be adopted for demographic data. To test the only hypothesis in the study, Chi Square statistical tool will be adopted. Chi-square (also referred to as χ²) analysis will be used to analyze the data collected.

 X2 =∑ (oi-ei)2

              ei

where oi = observed frequency

ei= expected frequency

∑=sum of frequency

x2= critical value from the chi-square table percent

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF NEPAD TO AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT

Chapter One: Introduction

The critical challenge of development for Africa in the 21st century is an issue around which there is considerable consensus. There is, however, little consensus on the nature of the crisis, the required development framework and trajectory or the ‘desired state’. In the context of the debate, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) has been promoted by its authors and sponsors as Africa’s development blueprint for meeting its development challenges. However, much of the criticism of NEPAD has focused, procedurally, on the lack of consultation in its drafting, and, paradigmatically, on its neoliberal content. Many scholars are of the opinion that adoption of NEPAD’s policy has not translated into development of Africa. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on the framework to measure the contributions of NEPAD to African development. Hence, this study seeks to analyse relevant areas of NEPAD  such as poverty reduction, trade promotion, good governance and institutional reforms that have shaped development in Africa.

The general aim of this study is to critically analyse the contributions of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to the development of Africa. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Measure the impact of implementation of NEPAD on poverty reduction in Africa;
  2. Examine the influence of the adoption and implementation of NEPAD on trade promotion in Africa;
  3. Analyse the impact of implementation of NEPAD’s framework on good governance in Africa;
  4. Examine the influence of implementation of NEPAD on institutional reforms in Africa

Both scholars and civil society thought of NEPAD in the light of past socioeconomic development plans, such as the Lagos Plan of Action. Their opinions did not give a concrete analysis of the concept of NEPAD, and they mainly believed that African leaders were beating the same drums of the development plans that their predecessors, such as Kwame Nkrumah, had played in the 1960s. This study moved away from that perspective as it identified the challenges faced by NEPAD and also examined some stakeholders’ perceptions of NEPAD since its inception. It was on this basis that the researcher evaluated the perceptions and challenges of NEPAD.

Many scholars and writers had viewed NEPAD using different ideological perspectives. Two groups were identified: those who thought NEPAD was doomed to fail because it tied Africa to the apron strings of the West and those who thought that NEPAD was the right step forward and held the key to Africa’s economic development. This research had no preconceptions of whether NEPAD would fail or succeed. The researcher set out to understand the indigenous African perceptions of NEPAD since its adoption and to study the challenges faced by NEPAD in achieving its set goals and objectives.

Although individual stakeholders had their various perceptions about Africa’s socio-economic development plans, they needed to be aware of the processes of NEPAD and its challenges before making a well-informed judgment whether it would succeed or fail. The final analysis of this study provides an evaluation of whether NEPAD was on course to achieving its set goals and objectives. So, this research is important for future studies in that it demonstrates the importance of publicizing economic plans and policies for development and of examining past economic plans, their successes, and their failures before developing new economic plans.

 Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the contributions of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to the development of Africa. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of two major groups of respondents. The first group comprised of 180 staff of NEPAD while the second group consist of beneficiaries of NEPAD programme. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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Family Background, School Location and Peer Group as Predictors of Juvenile Delinquency among Secondary School Students

INTRODUCTION

Socio-criminologists overtime have been engaged in analyzing juvenile delinquency as a concept, as well as establishing causal factors with the aim of prescribing effective measures of control.  An overview of juvenile delinquency in Nigeria points towards several casual factors such as the family background, school environment, peer group influence, home location and even the negative messages derived from the mass media.

Studies have revealed that family is a major predictor of delinquency (Breivik, Olweus, Endersen, 2009; Mandara and Murray, 2006).  According to Simons, Simons and Wallace (2004) children in single-parent homes are more likely to be delinquent. there is evidence to suggest that single-parent families, especially single-mothers, expect less of their children, spend less time monitoring them and use less effective techniques to discipline them. This means that children have greater opportunities and motivation to participate in delinquent acts than do those living in a two-parent family. Hence, the absence of one parent is a major predictor for juvenile delinquency (Mack et al., 2006).

Also, the idea that many schools are delinquency-producing agencies is fundamentally based on two types of accusations:(1) the school’s failure as a socialization agency- this refers to the school’s inability to inculcate upon students the necessary social skills that enable them to interact especially with peers and adults and (2) failure in academic subject may produce a situation in which students are frustrated and they (pupils) may turn into delinquent conduct.

The peer group may be viewed as an informal network of individuals of approximately the same age. Peers are thus individuals with whom a youth shares common problems and experiences. The peer group is a convenient structure which is suitable for needs of emotionally disturbed children who are unable to meet the demands required for participation in normal groups. The peer group is a crime predisposing factor as it creates opportunities outside family situation for children to commit crime.

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Impact of Poverty and Child Abuse on Nigeria’s Development

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Background to the Study

Research has shown that there is a link between poverty and child abuse (Sedlak et al., 2010). It is on record that the poverty line in the country is far above 70%. The relationship between income and child abuse is less consistent in studies of high-risk (primarily low-income) populations, where variance in family income is constricted. Several such studies failed to find an association between income, per se, and child welfare system involvement (Slack, Holl, Lee, McDaniel, Altenbernd, and Stevens, 2003), while others demonstrated that income is inversely associated with abuse reports, even after adjusting for potentially confounding factors (Shook, 1999).

Child abuse consists of any act, or failure to act, that endangers a child’s physical or emotional health and development. Child abusers inflict physical, sexual and emotional trauma on defenceless children every day. The scars can be deep and long-lasting.

Unfortunately, the more subtle forms of child abuse such as neglect and emotional abuse can be even more traumatizing than violent physical abuse.  According to Owuamanam et al (2005) the African Charter on the rights and welfare of the child recognizes that the child in any African setting occupies a unique and privilege position and that the child should grow up in a complete state of well-being to be provided by the family for full and harmonious development of his personality. The requirements embedded for a complete state of well-being are basic amenities, parental responsibilities in all dimensions, freedom to belong, adequate shelter, personal growth, autonomy, purpose in life, environmental mastery, and positive relations with others.

There are various types of child abuse. There are physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. Physical child abuse is an injury resulting from physical aggression. Even if the injury was not intended, the act is considered physical abuse.

According to Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007), more children suffer from neglect than from physical and sexual abuse combined. Yet victims are not often identified, primarily because neglect is a type of child abuse that is an act of omission, of not doing something.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Child abuse occurs in many forms and across all socio-economic groups (Beckett, (2003). Children who experience both poverty and child abuse are doubly disadvantaged because the experience of child abuse may in turn further undermine life chances in the long term. Poverty and child abuse in Nigeria cuts across various ethnic groups and nationalities. It goes further to show the level of decay our society had been subject to misrule often occasion by corruption, bad governance, greed and exploitation of the few elites against the poor masses of this country. Unfortunately, indebt study is yet to be conducted on the relationship between poverty and child abuse. Therefore, the presence study seeks to examine the relationship how poverty increases the chance of child abuse, a particularly among low income earners.

 1.3       Research Questions

1.         What are the causes of child abuse?

2.         Is there any relationship between poverty and child abuse?

3.         Does poverty really have effects on childhood experiences?

4.         How does poverty and child abuse affect the development of Nigeria?

1.4       Purpose of the Study

The purpose general purpose of this research work is to examine the relationship or link between poverty and child abuse. The specific purpose is to:

  1. Find out the causes and types of child abuse
  2. Investigate the relationship between poverty and teenage
  3. Examine the long and short term effects of poverty on the child
  4. Analyse how poverty and child abuse affect the development of Nigeria

1.5       Research Hypotheses

Ho1    There is no significant difference between poverty and child abuse

Ho2    There is no significant difference between poverty and national development

Ho3    There is no significant difference between child abuse and national development

Ho4    There is no significant difference between poverty and child abuse  and national development

1.5       Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on poverty and child abuse in five selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Benin City, Nigeria. However, one hundred and fifty (150) student from five secondary school in the local government Area will be randomly.

1.6       Significance of the Study

The present study will be very significant because it will enlighten the general public on the causes and types of child abuse. It will also highlight the relationship and link between poverty and child abuse. It will assist parents on how to cater for their wards and not to abuse them either physically or otherwise. It will further suggest possible solutions on ways to tackle the incidence of child abise as well as eradicate poverty in the country.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Poverty: Poverty is the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money

Child Abuse: Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional mistreatment or neglect of a child or children.

Child Neglect: Child neglect is a form of child maltreatment.

Student: A student is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution.

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