USE OF ADULT EDUCATION AS AN AGENT FOR SOCIAL CHANGE IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE

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This study intends to investigate the use of adult education as an agent for social change in Nigeria using Lagos State as a case study. While the overall aim of the research is to empirically find out whether adult education has had significant impact on Lagos State, it will also discuss the importance of adult education as well as the challenges facing adult education in Nigeria. The research distinguishes between adult education for working adults and Adult Education as a course of study in the University. This study is centered on adult education for working adults. Using Lagos State as a case study, the research adopts descriptive research survey with focus on adult students offering various courses at Lagos State University. Questionnaire was developed to cover the research questions and hypotheses. A total of 40 respondents are to be used for the study. Chi Square statistical tool will be used for data analysis. Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking adult education to national development will be made in the final chapter.

RESEARCH OVERVIEW:

Complete Project: 65

Pages Literature Review: 2005 Upward

Data Analysis: Chi Square Statistical Tool

Research Population:

40 Adult Education Students Research

Location: Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria

Questionnaire: 20 Items x 40

Respondents References: APA Style, 6th Edition (2010).

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE AFRICAN UNION, THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT IN PEACEMAKING IN SUDAN

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1       Background to the Study

The African Union (AU) together with the United Nations and the International Criminal Court (ICC) have pledged to create a continent of peace and solidarity. However, dozens of socio-ethnic conflicts occur across the continent despite the AU’s best efforts to prevent them. In this thesis, case study of Sudan is used to assess the efficacy of the AU in collaboration with the UN and ICC in the realm of peacemaking.

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Contextualizing Sudan in the Study

There are many reasons Sudan is a compelling country to study. Sudan, until recently, was Africa’s and the Arab world’s largest country. It is also the cradle of the worlds’ longest river, the Nile, and the Sudanese government exerts authority over the river’s tributaries, the Blue and White Niles.15 Additionally, the country is endowed with astonishing resources ranging from fertile land to minerals and oil. Sudan’s oil reserves were estimated to be among the richest in the continent and its potential agricultural products are considered enough to eradicate hunger in all of Africa.

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Wars and conflict faced Sudan on every front, not only internationally but also nationally. Internally, Sudan has been ravaged by two civil wars. The first is the North-South civil war, also known as Africa’s longest civil war, and the second is the conflict in Darfur. Khartoum’s involvement in the Darfur conflict resulted in an arrest warrant issued by the International Criminal Court (ICC)for the president of Sudan, Omar Al-Bashir, for crimes against humanity. Omar Al-Bashir’s authoritarian prolonged rule is said to eclipse the hopes for a democratic Sudan. Yet, the country underwent four democratic governments in the past five decades and therefore the spirit of revival persists. Sudan also experienced a few federal arrangements that are worth examining. Additionally, Sudan is one of the first few states to experience secession by a referendum in the world. In January 2010, South Sudan exercised its right to self-determination and in June 2011, declared itself as Africa’s youngest nation.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

At present, the efforts of the African Union, United Nations and the International Criminal Court in peacekeeping in Sudan, are yet to receive the attention of scholars. Meanwhile, the case study illuminate the financial, political, and socio-cultural trials the AU, UN and ICC faces when engaging in peacemaking.

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1.3       Research Questions

It will examine questions stemming from three quintessential areas of AU peacemaking and peacekeeping: economical, political, and socio-cultural.

  • How is the AU tackling African civil wars?
  • If the purpose of peacekeeping is to broker peace through compromise between opposing parties, is it within the interest of member states that are the subject to peacekeeping measures to contribute state funds to the AU Peace Fund and the ICC?
  • Why do Governments such as Sudan prefer the intervention of an AU peacekeeping mission than UN peacekeeping forces?
  • Is AU peacekeeping more acceptable because of its African origin, or is it because of its widespread record of lame-duck peacekeeping missions that offer little threat to the offending government?
  • Has the AU, UN and the ICC been able to offer lasting solution to the crises in Sudan?

1.4       Justification of the Study

The Sudan conflicts were chosen for analysis due to their high level of AU involvement and therefore offer sufficient evidence of AU peacemaking and peacekeeping capabilities. Hence, the study will offer sufficient data for greater understanding of the relationship between AU and ICC in peacekeeping due to the AU’s deep involvement in each of these conflicts. Moreover, the comparison of the two cases will offer a more balanced understanding of the AU’s capacity for peacemaking and peacekeeping efforts in Africa.

1.5       Scope of the Study

 

A number of parameter need to be established for the study. First, the period covered is from 2002 to 2010. Second, the African Union (AU) and founding of the ICC for resolutions in Sudan is critically examined based on their peace and solidarity efforts. Third, the civil wars are to be examined primarily from the perspective of African Union’s peacekeeping initiatives despite the involvement of other international organisations such as the United Nations as well as regional third party interventions.

1.6       Literature Review

There are several bodies of literature relevant to this study.

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All of the above perspectives provide a rich framework within which to assess the evolving AU-UN-ICC cooperation as seen in Sudan.

1.7       Research Methodology

Through the use of primary sources such as publications from  AU,UN and ICC; and secondary sources such as periodicals, books, articles, and newspapers, I will address the issue of AU peacemaking and peacekeeping efficacy by analyzing the Darfur crisis.

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End notes

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EFFECTS OF ASUU STRIKES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

PROPOSAL

 1.1       Background to the Study

Strike actions by the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) in Nigeria have had serious effects on the academic performance of the students. Founded in 1978, the Union organized nationwide strikes to challenge the military regimes of General Muhammad Buhari, General Ibrahim Babangida and General Sani Abacha. The Union have also used strike actions to demand fair wages, university autonomy, funding of Nigerian universities, etc.

Strike, according to Chijioke (2013) “is an organised work stoppage by a body of workers to enforce compliance with demands made on an employer or a group of employers.” Generally, ASUU uses strike as a means to force the government to respect the demands of the Union. Almost all heads of state and presidents of Nigeria between 1988 and 2013 have been compelled by ASUU through strike to meet their demands.

Disruptions  in  academic  programs  serve  as  non-motivational  factor  to  the  students.  It discourages them  from  learning.  It  is  not  surprising  therefore  that  during  strike  actions,  most students  are  seen  involved  in  diverse  activities  such  as  sexual  immorality,  cyber  scam,  pool betting,  unnecessary  gossips,  watching  of  films  and  reading  comic  materials  for  entertainment purposes  rather  than  reading  their  books.  In the long run, they soon forget about academics and are no longer prepared for class activities which negatively affect their learning capability.

Odubela  (2012)  concluded  that  an  effective  learning  or  an  enhanced  academic  performance  is achieved by successful covering of the course outline timely and before the examination. This is rarely achieved with strike action in place. From the above review therefore, the researcher is of  the  view  that  disruption  in  academic  program  as  caused  by  strike  action  breeds disappointment, frustration, emotional  and psychological trauma, unpreparedness on the part of the students and  lack of motivation, which sum up to non conducive environment for effective learning in Nigerian universities; a situation that dampens human development.

However, little attention is given to the effects of ASUU constant strikes on the academic performance of students in Nigerian universities. This study therefore intends to examine the series of ASUU strikes and the direct effects it has on the students’ grade point average (GPA).

1.2       Statement of the Problem

University worldwide is regarded as the citadel of knowledge, the fountain of intellectualism, the most appropriate ground for the incubation of leaders of tomorrow. However, over the last thirty years in Nigeria, the University system has witnessed an unprecedented industrial unrest and so many official assaults than other social institution.

Statistics from the National Universities Commission (2002) reveal that since 1992, ASUU has  embarked  on  strikes  over  23  times  to  drive  home  its  demands.  As  with  all  industrial conflicts,  strikes  have  significant  wider  social  consequences.

Many have argued that those in authorities see universities as a burden and as institutions to be exploited and left desolate. To arrest the situation, ASUU have went on industrial actions several times with the recent one in 2013 lingering for more than 6 months. There  is  hardly  a  full  academic session that student and staff crises will not result in loss of studies, delayed graduation for students and economic waste for students, parents and the country as a whole.

However, little attention is given to the effects of ASUU constant strikes on the academic performance of students in Nigerian universities. This study therefore intends to examine the series of ASUU strikes and the direct effects it has on the students’ grade point average (GPA).

1.3       Research Objectives

The general aim of this study is to find out the effects of ASUU strikes on the academic performance of university students. The specific objectives are:

1)  To assess the extent to which disruption in academic program in Universities affect students’ learning effectiveness

2)  To determine whether poor ASUU-students’ relationship during strike affects students’ study habit

3) To examine whether ASUU strikes have direct effect on students’ academic performance

4) To determine whether ASUU strikes motivate students to learn

 

1.4       Research Questions

1)  To what extent would disruption in academic program in Nigerisn universities due to ASUU strike affect students’ learning effectiveness?

2)  Would poor ASUU-students’ relationship during strike affects students’ study habit?

3) Does ASUU strikes have direct effect on students’ academic performance?

4) Does ASUU strikes motivate students to learn?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

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1.6       Scope of the Study

ASUU was established in 1978 and has since then encountered some of the worst problems in the history of trade unionism in the country. While the primary aim of this study is to investigate whether ASUU strikes have direct effects on students overall Grade Point Average, the research also touches on the primary causes and effects of the industrial conflict between the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) and the Federal Government of Nigeria. Also, rather than focuses generally on the ASUU disputes since inception  in 1978, the study specifically looks as ASUU strikes from 2009 to 2013 and its consequences on students academic performance.

1.7       Significance of the Study

This topic has not been well researched in the existing literature. Thus, the significance of this study lies in its contribution to the body of knowledge as follows:

(1)               This research provides a detailed account of the main disputes and considers specifically some of the factors that are responsible for the ASUU strikes in Nigeria;

(2)               The study is significant to the state and federal governments who will appreciate that the inability to implement the joint decisions reached have serious implications for the learning effectiveness of the students;

(3)               The study is significant to university management who are now in vantage position to apply management techniques by consultation in all issues involving labour problems;

(4)               The study would also benefit ASUU members who might not be unaware that the strike actions have direct consequences on their students and should seek alternative means to resolve disputes with FGN.

 

1.8       Limitations of the Study

Hardly would a research study be concluded without constraints. In a country such as ours where bureaucracy in the flow of information and where there is inaccurate data and statistics, there really has to be a problem. Specific instances of constraints related to the data system would include:

  1. Some students’ might not want to reveal their Grade Point Average;
  2. It is possible that other factors such as poor study habit, social activities and peer influence might primarily affect students’ academic performance in the University;
  3. Some members of staff might not want to participate in the study by releasing data of the students to actually compare the performance of students in semesters that ASUU went on strike with their GPA in semesters that ASUU did not go on strike.

1.9       Definition of Terms

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of the Study

1.3 Purpose of the Study

1.4 Research Question

1.5 Research Hypotheses

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.7 Scope of the Study

1.8 Limitations of the Study

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Theoretical Framework

2.2 University Education in Nigeria

2.3 Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) in Nigeria

2.4 Factors Responsible for ASUU Strikes in Nigeria

2.5 Effects of ASUU Strikes on Students Academic Performance

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Population of the Study

3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure

3.4 Instrument of Data Collection

3.5 Procedure of Administration

3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 Answers to Research Hypotheses

4.2 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

ABSTRACT

The relationship between class size and academic performance has been a perplexing one for educators. Although, several scholars have proposed various factors responsible for the poor performance of students, few research have been dedicated to the correlation between class size and academic achievement of students. This study therefore examines the relationship between class size and academic performance of students using some selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government area of Lagos State as case study. Four null hypotheses were raised and analysed using the simple percentage statistical analysis. Based on the findings, it was discovered that large class size negatively affects students’ academic performance. The study recommends that a national policy on teacher-student ratio should be implemented. More qualified teachers should be employed and  workshops should be organized for already employed ones. More classrooms should be built with up-to-date facilities and improve on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) that would aid teaching-learning process.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

 1.1     Background to the Study

The relationship between class size and academic performance has been a perplexing one for educators. Studies have found that the physical environment, class overcrowding, and teaching methods are all variables that affect students’ achievement (Molnar, et al., 2000).  Other factors that affect student achievement are school population and class size (Gentry, 2000; and Swift, 2000).

          The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the decline in standard of education. Since the academic success of students depends largely on the school environment, it is imperative to examine the impact variables  of class size and school population on the academic performance of students in secondary school.

          Large class size and over populated schools have direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because large class size do not allow individual student to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance.

In order to better understand the skill levels of students, it might be necessary to evaluate factors affecting their performance. These factors can include: school structure and organization, teacher quality, curriculum, and teaching philosophies (Driscoll, Halcoussis, & Svorny, 2003). The idea that school population and class size might affect student performance is consistent with the growing literature on the relationship between public sector institutional arrangements and outcomes (Moe, 1984). The purpose of this study is to further examine the relationship of class size, school population and student academic achievement

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The performance of secondary school students in NECO, WAEC and JAMB calls for proper investigation. Although, several scholars have proposed various factors responsible for the poor performance of students, few research have been dedicated to the correlation between class size, school population and academic achievement of students. This study therefore looks at how class size affect students’ academic performance in secondary schools.

1.3            Objectives of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between class size and student achievement using some selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State as case study. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Examine the relationship between class size and academic performance of students
  2. Examine the relationship between school population and academic performance of students
  3. Discuss the effects of over-population on classroom management
  4. Analyse the impact of over-population on school resources and facilities

 

1.4             Research Questions

       i.            Is there any correlation between class size and academic performance of students?

    ii.            Is there any relationship between school population and academic performance of students?

 iii.            Is there any relationship between over population and classroom management?

 iv.            Is there any relationship between over population and school resources/ facilities?

1.5            Research Hypothesis

Ho1      There is no significant relationship between class size and academic performance of students

Ho2      There is no significant relationship between school population and academic performance of students

Ho3      There is no significant relationship between over population and classroom management

Ho4      There is no significant relationship between over population and school resources/ facilities

1.6              Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on the relationship between class size and student achievement using some selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State as case study. This research  work  covers all public secondary schools students in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.

1.7                      Significance of the Study

This study is important for several reasons.

First, the findings will  help  teachers to identify the reasons for the academic performance of students in large classes with high population and how they can address the problems;

Second,  it  will  provide  comprehensive  information  for  educational planners, educators,  and  parents  on  how  they  can  assist  students to cope in large classes;

Third,  this  research  work  will  lead  to  further  in-depth  study  on the impact of class size and school population on the academic performance of students in Nigeria;

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In  this  regard,  it  will  be  useful  for  other  researchers  who might want to carry out research in related areas

1.8     Research Methodology      

A descriptive research design will be use in carrying out this study. The sample for this study constitutes one hundred (100) respondents. For this research work, random sampling technique will be used. This study will be restricted to the categories of teachers and students the researcher considered essentially relevant to issues being investigated. Simple percentage statistical analysis will be used for the study.

1.9     Definition of Terms

Academic Achievement – Knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects by  test scores.

Secondary school (also “high school”) is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place. It follows elementary or primary education, and may be followed by university (tertiary) education.

Overpopulation: This is when the number of students in a particular class exceeds the standard of student-teacher ratio of 1:30.

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