THE EFFECTS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

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Source: guardian.ng

Chapter One: Introduction

Boko Haram operates as the world most deadly terrorist group, killing over 30,000 civilians and displaced 2,152,000 people in Nigeria, Chad and neighbouring Cameroon (IDMC, 2015). In its bid to counter the group’s insurgency, the Nigerian government launched series of counterinsurgency operations between 2010 and 2015, with varying degree of human rights abuses on both sides (Vanguard, 2016). For instance, since the insurgency escalated in 2009, the Nigerian military arrested over 20,000 suspected terrorists and arbitrarily tortured 8000 people to death (Amnesty Inernational, 2015). Similarly, Boko Haram has killed civilians and security personnel in cruel and horrofic ways (Samer, 2015).

Nigeria is politically divided into six geo-political zones. The northeast geo-political zone belongs to the Muslim north. This economically backward zone comprises of Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe states. The zone is home to Boko Haram terrorist group officially called Jamāʻat Ahl as-Sunnah lid-daʻwa wal-Jihād meaning, “People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad” (Ekereke 2013, p.5). Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, Boko Haram (which imply “western education is a sin”) first clashed with the Nigerian police in a 5-day battle in July, 2009 (Andrew 2012, p.1). This led to the death of the founder and emergence of Abubakar Shekau, as the leader of the group. Under Shekau’s leadership, Boko Haram has attacked churches, mosques, markets, schools, banks, barracks, homes and motor parks killing over 4000 thousand people and displacing close to half a million in the northeast (Crisis Group 2014, p. 2). This has had serious political and economic implications for the poverty-stricken northeast zone.

Terrorist activities have strategic implications for national economic development. It is believed that terrorist operations can disintegrate the country as well as halt economic growth (ICG 2010, p.4). Continuous terrorist attacks are capable of undermining scientific and technological security of Nigeria. Many analysts have described President  Goodluck  Jonathan’s economic reform as an effort that may yield no results due to the insecurity in the northeast (UNCTAD 2014; Utomi 2014; and Ajao, 2014). In other words, the problems with the nation’s economy are directly linked to insecurity in the northeast. For instance, President Gooduck Jonathan went to Australia for a summit with about 500 delegates and could not attract foreign investors due to insecurity in the northeastern part of the country. He also went to France with about 300 delegates and could not woo foreign investors to the country. This line of argument is supported by Pat Utomi who opined that the issue of investment is also about the issue of security. No investor will come to invest in Nigeria with the current security challenge (Pat Utomi 2014, web).

In certain parts of Nigeria, there is currently an immense humanitarian crisis caused by several factors that have forced victims to flee, thereby turning them into refugees, while others have succumbed to the conditions and are considered internally displaced persons, making the economy of the region to become underdeveloped. Writing about Boko Haram is a difficult task, as researchers have very limited access to first-hand information. Indeed, foreign and national researchers find it almost impossible to conduct fieldwork in north-eastern Nigeria, where their security cannot be guaranteed. Recently, as the core of the conflict has seemed to be moving away from Maiduguri, capital of Borno, to the confines of Nigeria, the shores of Lake Chad and along the Cameroonian border, available information on the conflict has become even scarcer. Such difficulties contrast with the pressing demand of the Nigerian public and the international community alike for intelligible analyses of the situation, particularly from an economic development perspective.

Statement of the Problem

While efforts have been made by scholars to investigate the problems of Boko Haram in Nigeria, none has done so within the purview of the economic development of the northeast states. It is, therefore, the intent of this study to examine the impact of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria with special reference to the northeast geopolitical zone. Hence,  a specific goal will be to illuminate and explore the Boko Haram terrorist group and to look into how they exert their influence on the economic development of northeastern states of  Nigeria. 

Research Objectives

The general aim of this study is to examine the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on Socio-Economic Development in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Hence,  the specific objectives are to: 

  1. Examine the effect of Boko Haram attacks on internally generated revenue of Adamawa State
  2. Examine the effect of Boko Haram attacks foreign direct investment in Adamawa State
  3. Assess the social effects of Boko Haram terrorism on the cultural growth of the people of Adamawa
  4. Examine the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on local industries and agriculture in Adamawa State, Nigeria

 Research Questions                                     

Investigate the physical manifestations of terrorist acts In Nigeria;

  1. What is the effect of Boko Haram attacks on internally generated revenue of Adamawa State?
  2. What is the effect of Boko Haram attacks foreign direct investment in Adamawa State?
  3. What are the social effects of Boko Haram terrorism on the cultural growth of the people of Adamawa?
  4. What is the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on local industries and agriculture in Adamawa State, Nigeria?

Scope of the Study 

This study covers the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on Socio-Economic Development in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study, therefore, discusses the concept of terrorism, economy and politics. The analysis explores why internal terrorism occurs in northeastern states of Nigeria, and the factors which facilitate this. The target population are those directly affected by the insurgency. The period covered is from 2009 to 2017.

Chapter Two   Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the Boko Haram Insurgency. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted. The theoretical framework will explain the tactics of Boko Haram which involve political assassinations, intimidation, assassinations of Muslim clerics, drive by shootings, kidnappings, suicide bombing, guerrilla warfare, bank robberies, attacks on churches, attacks on Muslims, attacks on universities, attacks on newspapers headquarters, and finally on international targets, most notably the UN.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses a descriptive survey type. The target population consists of all IDPs who evolved as a result of Boko Haram in Adamawa State. A questionnaire will be used as an instrument for data collection. The relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

. The sample size of this project consists of one hundred and sixty (150) respondents randomly selected camps in the table below:


    The sampling procedure adopted in this study was simple random sampling technique. This method means that individuals in the population have an equal opportunity to be selected for the sample.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research questions and one  hypothesis formulated in chapter one.  In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis will be adopted for demographic data. To test the only hypothesis in the study, Chi Square statistical tool will be adopted. Chi-square (also referred to as χ²) analysis will be used to analyze the data collected.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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MICRO-CREDIT AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF MARKET WOMEN IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Micro-credit schemes give poor people access to small amounts of financial credit to assist them in economic activities. As Naila Kabeer (1998) has noted, micro-credit programmes have become an increasingly important intervention for addressing poverty, through a strategy of direct lending or of financial intermediation. Further, in the 1990s the World Bank outlined a bilateral approach towards enhancing development growth for the poor: policies that supported the use of labour (by harnessing market incentives and other means) and the provision of basic services to the poor. In view of this, the bank and many other agencies have strongly maintained and advocated the implementation of micro-credit programmes as a positive means of enhancing women’s economic empowerment, especially in Third World countries (World Bank Report, 2000).

Chapter Two: Literature Review

The micro-credit scheme is the latest in a line of historical and conceptual frameworks for approaching interrelated development programmes or policies, designed and promoted as instruments of change. Concerns for women’s economic empowerment, voice and gender equality, especially within the household and community have informed the proliferation and implementation of these development schemes by many NGOs and governmental organisations.

Thus, the overall framework of this chapter will constitute two different parts: first it will examine various definitions of ‘development’ and its relevance to gender and development, and secondly, it will evaluate various development approaches and examine their significance to women’s economic empowerment and well-being in a broad spectrum.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The population for this study consists of all market women in Ita-Osun (popularly called New Market). The sample for this study constitutes one hundred (100) respondents. Questionnaire will be used as instrument for data collection. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis will be adopted.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF FAMILY PLANNING ON THE POPULATION IN AKWA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Chapter One: Introduction

Among the ten largest countries in the world, one is in Africa (Nigeria), five are in Asia (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan), two are in Latin America (Brazil and Mexico), one is in Northern America (United States of America), and one is in Europe (Russian Federation). Amongst these, Nigeria’s population, currently the seventh largest in the world with over 180 million people (Wordlometers, 2016) is growing the most rapidly. Consequently, the population of Nigeria is projected to surpass that of the United States by about 2050, at which point it would become the third largest country in the world (UN, 2015 ). Family  planning  according  to United Nations  Population  Funds  Activities  (UNPFA  2001)  is  a  recognized  basic  human  right  and  enables individuals and couples to determine the number and spacing of their children.       The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) stated that  family planning allows individuals and couples to  anticipate  and  attain  their  desired  number  of  children  and  the  spacing  and  timing  of  their  births.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on population growth, family planning and  the strategies of resolving population growth in Nigeria. Family planning according to United Nations Population Funds Activities (UNPFA 2001) is a recognized basic human right and enables individuals and couples to determine the number and spacing of their children. There is virtually not universally accepted theory on which a family planning research could be hinged. Nevertheless, people have approached the Problem using Health belief model by Rosen Stock et al and Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The population comprised the entire families in Isiala Mbano Local Government Area of Imo State. Sample sizes of 240 families were used for this study. 30 families were randomly drawn from each community using the simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The t-test statistics was employed to test the hypotheses formulated for the study.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking family planning and national development was made in the final chapter.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF FAMILY PLANNING FAMILY PLANNING

Effect of Divorce on Children’s Conflict Behaviour

One in every three marriages conducted in Nigeria fail within the first three years (Al Jazeera, 2012). Thus, by the time students in Nigeria reach the age of eighteen, 50-60% of them will be affected by divorce (Adegoke, 2010).  Given the large number of children affected by divorce, research has focused on why and how divorce affects children’s adjustment (Potter, 2010; Sun & Li, 2011). Research consistently shows a negative relationship between parental divorce and children’s well-being. For example, children from divorced families have been found to have higher rates of depression (Strohschein, 2005) and antisocial behaviors (Vandewater & Lansford, 1998). Studies have found parental divorce to have a significant negative effect on children’s educational success, such as academic achievement and attainment (Amato, 2001; Frisco et al., 2007; Lansford, 2009;).

Among children of divorce, relatively few studies have examined effect of divorce on children’s conflict behaviour.According to Quinlan (2003), it is difficult for a child to realize that two people who love themselves do not love each other again. Most children could not comprehend the complexity of strains that led to the rapture of marital love. Fraser (2003) contends that performance and behaviour of children living with a single parent is below that of children living with the two parents. He observed that children who lives with a parent especially a divorced one, usually feels unsecured, always attention seeking and anxious that his/her education may be seriously hindered or disrupted through these feelings and at the end it would affect the child’s total behaviour. It has been statistically proven that children in single parents home fare worse than those with two parents (States News Service, 2005).

It has been established that family structure contributes to five characteristics of a child’s well being. These include lower birth rates and higher death rates among infants when there is just one parent.Compared to children who grew up in continuously intact families, offspring from divorced parents are often found to have lower psychological well-being (Ferner, 2002) have more emotional problems such as depression (Evbodaghe, 2002) have more negative self-image perform less well at school exhibit more delinquent and aggressive behaviour have a higher risk for substance use and they also have more problematic relationships and early sexual intercourse (Fraser, 2003).Previous research has shown parental divorce to be negatively associated with academic achievement.

However, most of this research has been focused on the educational outcomes of children and adolescents as opposed to young adults. This has created a vacuum in understanding the link between divorce and children anti-social behaviour. To fill this gap,  the current study investigates whether and how parental divorce affects children’s conflict behaviour in a school setting.

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