AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE TEACHING OF BIOLOGY IN RURAL AREAS

 

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction

Inclusive education suggests and implies that every child, youth and adult irrespective of sex, race and any other distinguishing factor is entitled to education (Okeke, 2008). Inclusion is a new way of thinking about specialised education. The shift from special education to inclusive education signals a dramatic philosophical change. Inclusion is a belief in the inherent right of all persons to participate meaningfully in society. Inclusive education implies acceptance of differences and making room for persons who would otherwise be excluded. This practice of educating children who have disabilities together with their non-disabled peers means creating learning communities that appreciate and respond to the diverse need of its members (Eskay, 2009).

Since the launching of the first National Policy on Education (1977), there has been a plethora of activities aimed at improving special education services for children, including: the establishment of additional residential primary schools for children with disabilities in most states of the federation, the increased attendance of students with disabilities in secondary and higher institutions, and the preparation of special education teachers in select tertiary institutions in the country. There has also been a rise in the number of advocacy organizations of and for people with disabilities. These initiatives have however been met with mixed outcomes, with dually-trained special educators (i.e. those holding certification in an area of special education and a subject-matter discipline such as Biology) not properly deployed to work with students with disabilities. Other persistent problems over the years include: lack of up-to-date teaching devices, and organizational and leadership crises that have militated against reform of the special education sector.

Interestingly enough, Section 7 of the revised National Policy on Education (2008) explicitly recognizes that children and youth with special needs shall be provided with inclusive education services. The commitment is made to equalize educational opportunities for all children, irrespective of their physical, sensory, mental, psychological or emotional disabilities. Undoubtedly, these are lofty goals intended to improve the quality of inclusion education services, but much more is needed to translate the goals into concrete action especially in the rural areas.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and examines if Biology teachers’ biographical factors (gender, teaching experience and phase of the school) have any influence on their knowledge about inclusive education and a student with special educational needs.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. Chi Square was will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations were also made in chapter five

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2. Concept of Inclusive education
2.3 Development of Inclusive Education in Nigeria
2.4 Biology Teachers’ Attitude towards Inclusive Education
2.5 Inclusive Education for Teaching Biology in Rural Areas
2.6 Challenges to Inclusive Education in Nigeria

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

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EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ADULT LEARNERS IN NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Chapter One: Introduction
Nigeria has a legislation framework for adult education and training as adults have a constitutional right to basic adult education. However, this right does not appear to be translated into adequate action to cater for adult learners. One of the educational challenges of the 21st century is the need for an educational system that facilitates a process of life-long and self-directed study habit among adult learners. The overarching goal of the education policy is to enable all individuals to value, have access to, and succeed in life-long education and training of good quality.

 The extent of adult student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period which learning has been done. It is believed that grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades, it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out as predicting grades. It has been an interplay of so many factors such as gender, intelligence quotient, study habits, age, year level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth order, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are a variable of academic performance among adult learners.
 

Research on the correlation between study habit, gender, school location and academic achievement of adult learners in adult class has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the adult learners. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2001) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and study habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

However, studies of school achievement indicate that most adult learners are under achievers. (Dizney, 2003, Okegbile, 20070 and Adetunji and Oladeji, 2007). A major reason for adult learners’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2004) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that adult learners, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing study materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of adult learners to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of adult learners studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

Although, studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on adult learners’ academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.
The primary aim of this study is to provide a survey study habits of adult learners in adult class as well as the relationship between gender and study habit; school location and study habit and how each of these variables affect the study habit on adult learners’ in adult class. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:
1. Assess the study habit of adult learners in adult class;
2. Compare the academic performance of male and female adult learners who have developed a study habit and those who do not have study habit;
3. Examine the relationship between school location and study habit among adult learners in adult class; and
4. Investigate the effect of study habit on student’s academic performance in adult class

Chapter Two: Literature Review
Chapter two focuses on the literature review; and contextualizes study habit among adult learners.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
This chapter presents the research methodology employed in this study. It focuses on the influence of study habit on the academic performance adult learners in National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos State. It entails or deals on the methods and procedure employed by the researcher in collecting data. In analyzing the data collected from the respondents, simple percentage method of data analysis was adopted for demographic data. Inferential statistical analysis of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the research question at 0.05 level of significance

Chapter Four: Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher analyses the data collected for the researcher work and interprets it according to the research questions formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings, and data analysis. Recommendations on linking positive study habit to enhanced performance of adult learners will be made in the final chapter.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.1 Concept of Study Habit
2.2 Concept of Academic Performance
2.3. Relationship Between Gender and Study Habit
2.4. Relationship Between School Location and Study Habit
2.5 Factors Affecting Study Habit Among Adult learners’
2.6 Effect of Study Habit on Academic performance of Adult learners’
2.7 Empirical Review

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of Research Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

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EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ADULT LEARNERS IN NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA

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SCHOOL LOCATIONAL VARIABLES AS DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 1.1              Background to the Study

 The relationship between school location and school effectiveness has been a perplexing one for educators.  Studies have found that the physical environment, locality of school in rural or urban area, socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, ethnic location of the school, overcrowded classrooms built near market centres, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, school plant planning, among others, are all school locational variables that significantly affect school effectiveness (Adewuyi, 2002; Ahmed,  2003; and Ijeoma, 2007)

School effectiveness in this context refers to the extent to which schools are able to accomplish their pre-determined objectives. School effectiveness transcends beyond students passing final examinations. It also encompasses students’ attainment in other domains of learning (the affective and the psychomotor domains). According to Bandele (2002), these other domains, apart from having influence on the cognitive achievement, also make the beneficiary of the education system live a fulfilled life and contribute meaningfully to the development of the society.

School effectiveness research started in the mid-1960s with the Coleman Report (Coleman et al. 1966) in the United States. Since then, there are three distinct but  inter-related  branches  of  school  effectiveness  research,  namely,  (a)  school  effects research – i.e.  scientific  properties  of  school  effects,  e.g.  the  size  of  school  effects,  (b) effective schools research – i.e. process oriented study of characteristics of effective schools, and  (c)  school  improvement  research – focusing  and  limiting  its  test  of  specific  models  of effective schools. It must be noted that most of school effectiveness research studies have traditionally come from USA, UK and some continental European countries, in particular, the Netherlands. Much is yet to be examined on the effects of school locational factors on school effectiveness in Nigeria.

Nigeria as a nation strives to experience real growth and development. This requires a clearly defined development strategy that allows intensive utilization of resources which is endowed. These resources are the various school physical facilities that are indispensable in the educational process. They include the sitting, the building and physical equipment, recreation places for the achievement of educational objectives (Oluchuckwu, 2000).

School location with its attendant features of instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in the teaching-learning process. The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location in the locality, within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These factors can adversely affect student behavior and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student.

Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic performance of students.

Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with student-teacher ratio, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in the classroom with student health problems, student behavior, and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2001; Johnson, 2001; Lyons, 2001;Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement these studies, the present research examines the aforementioned areas of school locational factors such as location of the school itself, class size, school facilities, and school population affect the effectiveness of schools in Nigeria.

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Emphasizing the importance of school location  to school effectiveness started with Coleman’s Report (Coleman et al. 1966) in the United States. Since then, various researches have been conducted on school effectiveness. These researches, however, were centred on the developed countries. With the exception of few works (Isaac  et al, 2010; Adewuyi, 2002; Ahmed,  2003; and Ijeoma, 2007), no serious attempt has been made to study how  school locational factors serve as determinants of school effectiveness in Nigerian secondary schools. It is on this basis that the present study seeks to unravel how location of the school itself, class size, school facilities, and school organization are structurally significant to an effective school.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The purposes of this study are:

  1. To examine the relationship between school location and school effectiveness
  2. To examine the impact of school facilities on the effectiveness of schools
  3. To explore factors such as class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibit students learning in the academic process of students in secondary school
  4. To investigate the extent to which school organization affects the effectiveness of the school

1.4     Research Questions

  1.    Is there any relationship between school location and school effectiveness?
  2.     To what extent do school facilities affect school effectiveness?
  3.   What effect does class size has on the academic performance of students in secondary school?
  4.  To what extent does school organization has on the effectiveness of the school?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

Ho1      There is no significant difference between school location and school effectiveness

Ho2      There is no significant difference between school facilities and school effectiveness

Ho3      There is no significant difference between class size and academic performance  of students

Ho4      There is no significant difference between school organization and school effectiveness

 1.6     Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that can aid the school to be effective in helping students to achieve their goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing these recommended factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with  many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic performance of student in secondary school.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on school locational factors as determinants ofschool effectiveness. This research work covers all public secondary schools students in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.

 1.8  Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary school in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State as the scope of the study suggest.

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