This study examines the influence of parenting style on the academic performance of students in secondary school using four selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State as case study. One hundred students were randomly selected from these schools. One hundred parents were also randomly selected from Agege Local Government. Four hypotheses were developed to test the correlation between parenting style and academic performance of students in secondary school Questionnaire was used to gather data on gender, age, study skills habits, and family description. To determine parenting style, parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, while the students completed a peer-rating. Data was analyzed using percentage. Also, as hypothesized, academic performance of students in the selected schools was significantly positively correlated with a good parenting style. The research contends that parental involvement at all grade levels can assist in the academic and behavioral performance of students. Hence, it is suggested that similar research with relevant research methodology should be used in carrying out research in other states of the federation to ascertain the degree of conformity which this research have on the correlation between parenting style and academic performance of students in Nigeria.



1.1        Background to the Study

Research on teaching methods has for long been of interest to educationists. However, some studies have been carried out on certain aspects of the programme but have not investigated the academic performance of pupils in Nursery and Primary level of education in the use of some specific teaching methods.

Research evidence shows that the challenges confronting the nursery and primary school teachers are basically on the methods of imparting the knowledge. It was argued by Adufe (2008) that teaching is based on methods which at the long run bring about effective teaching.

Teaching, according to Oladipo and Ayeni (2000) involves bringing about or at least facilitating desirable changes in learners. However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the realm of personal experience and step into the world of the learners. (Brown, 1997). It is the learner who must be engage for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must take the commitment to learn.

Instruction is the transmission to the learner and the acquisition by him on specific skills, information, knowledge or other established data. The mode of instruction or teaching applied in achieving these objectives is referred to as method. Methodology therefore, refers to the processes and techniques a teacher of either nursery or primary education uses to transmit facts, skills, information and knowledge to the learners so as to facilitate the accomplishment of the set objectives.

Research evidence shows that the major problem in the nursery and primary schools is the method of imparting knowledge. To this Adepoju (2006) citing Kernest and Levin (1973) revealed the difficulties children of some ages (usually nursery and primary level) encountered when they are instructed using verbal approach. This is also confirmed as the study carried out in Nigeria by Busari (1991) revealed that the method presently employed in teaching, in most of our public primary schools is inadequate or not effective.

It is of a necessity that a skillful teacher needs to be conversant with various teaching strategies which may be applied to subjects at different class situations. Adufe (2008) affirms that many methods of teaching exist in education and these methods are meant to make teacher succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge.

However, the success in the use of any method differs as a result of an intelligent analysis of the objectives, the pupils in class, the curriculum content or the type of subject matter.

Also, the impact of any teaching method is not only limited to the conditions surrounding the teaching but also the advantages and the disadvantages of a particular method in a particular situation should not be left out.

          Every profession has a method or set of methods it employs to disseminate its intent to the young ones waiting to enter the profession. Any discussion on teaching methodologies must take cognizance of the whole teaching process. In an effort to transmit knowledge to learners, a teacher adopts or employs some strategies, techniques, means or measures.

          This means or measures adopted by a teacher to transfer knowledge to learners is known as ‘method’. A method then is defined as the overall strategies, processes, means and techniques employed by a teacher to enable him achieve his objectives.

          Given the over-abundance of supply of methods, teachers are still faced with the problems of choice. We make choice simply because we cannot use one method in virtually all situations. Many methods of teaching exist in education. All these strategies are meant to make teacher succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge.

Factors Determining Teaching Methods

  • The Method must be right for the Learners: Some teachers consider the selection of method as an area where they have exclusive monopoly. This conception is wrong as their selection of method would affect their learners.

Learners’ interest, age, level and weaknesses should guide the selection of the relevance method. For instance, it would be wrong of a teacher to impose the use of discussion method on any category of learners that have speech deficiency.

  • The method must be also right to the teacher: Every Teacher is a unique personality with distinct behaviour. Some teachers may function well in certain condition and situations while others may flop significantly under similar condition. For instance, some teachers are intrinsically motivated while some are extrinsically motivated.
  • The Method should be best for the Subject Matter: By subject matter, we mean the topic to be taught. No matter how good a strategy of teaching is, if the method is not in line with the topic, little or no success will be achieved.
  • The Strategy must be right for the Resources Available: By resources we mean the instructional aids or materials. The decision of a teacher to use a particular text or a reference material hinges on the availability of the text.

Adesanya (2006) also submitted some basic criteria which must be considered before the selection of any teaching methods.

  • Time Allocated: Time allocated for the subject on the timetable should be a guide in the selection of teaching methods. She further explains that a teacher who has a limited time may want to favour lecture method because of it attributes. However, lecture method is not applicable in teaching the foundational classes.

          Also, Ckenzie, et al (1980) in Adesanya (2006) argues that the objectives of the teacher should also be considered before the selection of any method. This implies that what the teacher intends to achieve at the end of the lesson should be in line with the selected method.

          As a result of these factors, it is advisable that a skillful teacher in nursery and primary level of education should consider these factors when he/she needed to achieve his/her stated objectives.

          It is however, sustained that various methods of teaching exist but there is a distinctive difference between them. There are methods used in higher education which virtually cannot be use in the lower level of education which nursery and primary education exist.

          Nursery and primary education therefore, gives room for any method which will help in facilitating the teaching and learning of a teacher and also make the stated objectives achievable.

          As a result of this, the study on the comparative study of some teaching methods and its effects on the academic performance of pupils in nursery and primary schools worth pursuing. It is hoped that the results of this study will provide evidence as to the nature of two basic teaching method virtually used in nursery and primary education (play way method and story telling method) and their distinctive approach towards the achievement of pupils in both nursery and primary school level.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

          Many methods of teaching exist in education. All the strategies are meant to make teachers succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. However, little are considered on some factors that are necessary before selecting the appropriate method. Also the methods used in teaching the young ones are not effective for their teaching and learning and this negate their academic performance.

1.3     Purpose of the Study

          The purpose of the study is to:

  1. Find out the factors needed to be considered before the selection of any teaching methods
  2. Analyse different methods of teaching in terms of their advantages and disadvantages
  • Compare basically two different methods of teaching and their effectiveness in classroom setting.

1.4     Research Questions

  1. What are the factors needed to be considered before the selection of a particular teaching method?
  2. Will the attitude and learning of pupils depend on these factors?
  • Is there any significant difference between the methods of teaching in Nursery and Primary schools?
  1. What effects does play way method and story telling method have on the academic performance of pupils?

1.5   Significance of the Study

        The result of this study will provide basis for effective teaching methods by Nursery and Primary school teachers to modify or reinforce pupils’ academic performance.


1.6   Scope/Delimitation

        This study will focus mainly on two method of teaching: story telling and play way methods. Moreover, their effectiveness in assisting pupils to learn in classroom situation will also be looked into. Although, the study is meant for all pupils in Ijebu-Ode Local Government, however, due to time and fund, the research will only be limited to some selected nursery and primary schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State.

1.7   Operational Definitions of Terms

Teaching Methods: In this study, it implies the principles and methods of instruction

Methods: A way of doing something, especially in a systematic way, it implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps).

Academic Performance: Refers to how pupils deal with their studies and how they cope with different task given to them by their teachers.

Pupils: Pupils in this study refers to children who are learning in both the nursery and the primary level of education.

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This study examines the effects of personality of the teacher on school discipline using some selected secondary schools in Wukari Local Government Area of Taraba State as case study. This study adopts the descriptive survey design. The research made use of a standardized questionnaire for data collection for the study. One hundred (100) students were randomly selected from four secondary schools in the area. Four hypotheses were tested and the result showed that teachers’ personality affects the school discipline especially in the classroom situation, on the assembly ground and outside the school setting. Based on the findings, appropriate training programme should be given to teachers in regard to behaviour modelling and positive personality development which in-turn impacts school discipline.


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Chapter One

Research on the correlation between study habit and students academic achievement has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the national Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the students. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement. Similarly, Onwuegbuzie (2019) conducted a series of studied to find out the relationship between academic success and study habit and reported positive relationship between the two variables.

               However, studies of school achievement indicate that most students are under achievers (Okegbile, 2017). A major reason for students’ under-developed potentialities may be in their lack of learning strategies. Emily and Betty (2018) posit that it is not an infrequent occurrence that students, who spend inordinate amounts of time memorizing study materials, are still barely getting by. To them, the student’s personal, emotional, and social development may suffer from the pressures created by the use of relatively inefficient learning strategies.

               Study habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work privately. Azikiwe (2017) describes the study habit as “the adopted way and manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain mastery of the subject”. According to her, “good study habits are good assets to learners because they (habits) assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization and consequent excellent performance, while opposite constitute constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure”.

               Good (2018) define the term study habits as: The student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc”. Going by this definition it literally means that good study habit produces positive academic performance while inefficient study habit leads to academic failure.

               In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

               According to Hussain (2016) secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor has caused serious damage to the achievement status to secondary school students.

               Achievement is generally a pedagogical terminology used while determining learners’ success in formal education and which is measured through reports examinations, researches, and ratings with numerous factors of variables exerting influence. Essentially, the National Policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) has identified school achievement contents according to school subjects which are classified as core or elective subjects.

               Although studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on students academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.


Chapter Two: Literature Review


This chapter reviews literature on the effect of study habit on students’ academic performance. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology


This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of some selected secondary schools in Ijebu Ode Local Government area of Ogun State as case study. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis


In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.