Awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a Career among Secondary School

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1             Background of the Study

The Medical Laboratory profession has its roots in clinical pathology. In fact, “the practice of modern medicine would not be possible without the professional services of medical technologists, also known as clinical laboratory scientists” Muelhlenkamp (as cited in Kirby, 2007).

In the 21st century, clinical laboratory science is a healthcare profession that encompasses areas such as hematology, clinical chemistry, microbiology, parasitology, immunohematology, toxicology, immunology, and molecular pathology. The clinical laboratory workforce is comprised of practitioners nationally recognized by their degree of education and training as well as by their level of expertise. It is the combination of education, training, and experience, which differentiates practitioners and qualifies them for employment in a particular field.

The Medical Laboratory Science workforce seems to be at an exciting crossroad of change, both in recruiting and in curriculum.The environment of healthcare has changed and so has nursing, resulting in students asking, “what is Medical Laboratory Science?”. This question creates a challenge for Medical Laboratory Science educators. In order to attract and retain bright, capable students in nursing, there must be changes in Medical Laboratory Science curricula to provide and assure accurate and definitive perceptions of Medical Laboratory Science. Factors which currently contribute to students’ perceptions of Medical Laboratory Science must be identified in order to establish and provide students with the career making skills necessary in choosing a Medical Laboratory Science career, find job satisfaction following graduation, and remain in Medical Laboratory Science as a career.

Today, the conceptualization by students of the Medical Laboratory Science profession appears uncertain, and the question asked by many students is “What is Medical Laboratory Science?” (Wieck, 2000). Historically, nurses have been predominantly females. Students’ perceptions of Medical Laboratory Science are based on visual images that are often limited to blood testing and x-ray taking instead of that of a highly skilled and well-educated Medical Laboratory professional with an important role to play in healthcare. Many students have not spent time with a Medical Laboratory professional or volunteered in a healthcare setting to acquire a background on which to establish perceptions about Medical Laboratory Science, and thus have limited their opportunities for more informed career decision-making skills.

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Many bright students are looking for advanced degrees, and are often confused regarding academic tracks for Medical Laboratory Science. These students are often discouraged by the lack of standardization in Medical Laboratory Science education, and choose alternative curricula in medicine instead of Medical Laboratory Science. Students also need to be aware of advanced degrees that prepare students to achieve advanced educational opportunities.

1.2             Statement of the Problem

 

Hospitals and healthcare facilities in the Nigeria are facing serious shortages of medical laboratory personnel, which, if not addressed, stand to negatively impact patient care. The problem is compounded by a reduction in the numbers of academic programs and resulting decrease in the number of graduates to keep up with the increase in industry demands. This problem is not peculiar to Nigeria. For instance, in the United States Cearlock (as cited in Enrado, 2009) asserted that “only two new clinical lab professionals enter the field for every seven who retire, and the average age of the laboratory professional is over 50”.

Also, there appears to be a limited, and in some cases, negative perception that is of the Medical Laboratory profession created by a number of factors that filter down to secondary school students. Students’ perceptions about Medical Laboratory Science have been shown to be influenced by several factors including negative parental viewpoints, a lack of time spent by students in healthcare settings, absence of Medical Laboratory mentors, and unrealistic television media portrayals of Medical Laboratory practictioners.

Facing this national shortage of educational opportunities and the projected need for laboratory professionals, faculty and trained professionals found it was more critical than ever to make sure that entrants to the program succeeded, graduated, and prepared to enter the profession.

Therefore, research is needed to determine if adequate informed career decisions making skills about Medical Laboratory prior to entering the programs can improve Medical Laboratory student retention rates and career satisfaction. Given these challenges, the purpose of this study was to determine the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career path among secondary students.

 

1.3             Research Question

  1. Is there any relationship between family background and the awareness of Medical Laboratory as a career among secondary school students?
  2. Is there any relationship between peer group pressure and the awareness of Medical Laboratory as a career among secondary school students?
  3. Is there any relationship between societal valued jobs and the awareness of Medical Laboratory as a career among secondary school students?
  4. Is there any relationship between school environment and the awareness of Medical Laboratory as a career among secondary school students?

 

1.4       Research Hypotheses

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1.5             Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research work is to:

Find out if family background determines the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career among secondary school students

Find out if peer group pressure determines the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career among secondary school students

 

Find out if there is a relationship between societal valued jobs and the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career among secondary school students

 

Find out if school environment determines the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career among secondary school students

 

1.6             Significance of the Study

 

The significance of this study lies in its impact on three general areas: (a) the individual student, (b) the society, and (c) the Medical Laboratory profession. The individual student has a desire to succeed and to complete the degree program in order to be eligible to sit for the certification examination and to gain employment in the profession. The exiting of students from the program before completion means that resources have been wasted and that dreams have been thwarted.

 

Clearly, the shortages of personnel and the program closures have placed new demands on medical laboratory technology programs to recruit more students and to develop strategies to decrease attrition and to increase graduation rates. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict student success and to implement strategies that will enhance student learning and decrease attrition will have a positive impact on graduation rates and the availability of trained professionals in the community.

 

There is a definite need for empirical research that will enhance the knowledge of

educators in the health related fields of study, particularly in the field of Medical Laboratory Technology. While there is a wide body of research attempting to predict student success in nursing or medicine, little research was found in a review of the literature examining predictability of student success in Medical Laboratory Science.

Understanding students’ perceptions of nursing will help Medical Laboratory Science recruiters and educators to determine whether an Introduction to Medical Laboratory Science course would be beneficial to intending students. Academic and visible healthcare experience can provide students with more informed career decision-making skills, as well as help to formulate informed perceptions of professional Medical Laboratory Science

 

1.7             Delimitation of the Study

The research is needed to determine the awareness of Medical Laboratory Science as a career path among secondary students. The study focuses on the factors that influence students’ choice of career in secondary schools. It is aimed at all secondary school students in Kwara State but because of time, money and other factors, it will be limited to only four schools.

1.8             Operational Definition of Terms

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THE ROLE OF PARENTS TEACHERS’ ASSOCIATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN AGEGE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE

PROPOSAL

1.1       Background to the Study

Parent involvement is a salient predictor of students’ success (Million, 2003). In fact, many researchers suggest that parent involvement positively impacts students’ achievement, attendance, attitudes, behavior, graduation, and life goals (Burke, 2001 and Belenardo, 2001). There is also much evidence that these benefits cross lines of family income and parent education level. In an era characterized by tremendous emphasis on school accountability as measured by students’ performance, education reform measures are replete with components that address parent involvement (Belenardo, 2001).

The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been rigorously advocated in Nigeria in recent years, which aims at the promotion of parent involvement to enhance the educational outcomes of students. The number of PTAs has been increasing drastically. Parents Teachers Association  can  be  identified  as  very  important variable  that  have  potential  for  promoting  directly  or indirectly  student  academic  achievements  (Olatoye  and  Ogunkola,  2008).

Looking  at  the  quality  of  products  that  Nigeria’s secondary  schools  turn  out,  it  appears  the  quality  of education  received  by  the  students  is  low  in  terms  of cognitive,  affective  and  psychomotor  development  there-by  making  the  secondary  school  system  ineffective. Omoregie  (2006)  lamented  that  the  secondary  education which  is  the  pivot  of  the  entire  educational  system  in Nigeria  is  fast  loosing  relevance,  as  it  is  not  fulfilling  the national  objectives  as  set  down  in  the  National  policy  of education.

The  academic performance  of  secondary  school students  could  be attributed  to  several  factors  but  this  study  is  restricted to the role of parents teachers’ association  as  a potential  factor .  It  has  been  noticed  in  some  areas,  that  school  principals  do  not  involve the  parents  in  the  administration  of  the  schools  for fear  of being  criticized.  It  appears  in  some  cases,  parents  are  no longer  allowed  to  participate  in  school  programmes  and parents  are  no  longer  allowed  to  visit  their  children  in school regularly  to  see  how  they  fare.  There  are  instances  where some principals no  longer  make   use   of   the   Parents Teachers  Association  (PTA)  in  school  administration.  All these  tend  to  make  the  parents  handicapped  in  assisting the  school  in  the  provision  of  qualitative  education  to  its students.

According  to  Cotton  and  Wikelund  (2001),  many benefits  are  accrued  for  the  school  and  for  parents themselves  when  parents  become  involved  in  their children’s  school  activities.  They  maintained  that,  school personnel  benefit  from  the  improved  rapport  that generally  accompanies  increased  parents’  involvement.

This  rapport  is  often  expressed  in  parents’  increased willingness  to  support  school  with  their  labour  and resources  during  fund-raising  activities  or  special projects. Besides,  Henderson  (1987),  Hicks  and  Sammons (1992)  and  Hillman  and  Mortimore  (1995)  had  showed  in their  various  studies  that  parental  presence  in  the  school activities  and  participation  in  committees’  events  and other  activities  all  had  positive  effects  on  achievement.

Adewuyi  (2002)  also  submitted  that  active  parent  involvement and positive home-school-community relations have been  shown  to  positively  influence  effective  schooling and students’ achievement. Ajayi  (1999)  also  posited  that,  effective  administration of  schools  could  be  hampered  where  the  PTA  is  not performing  its  roles  as  expected.  Also,  Ajayi  (2007) posited  that,  the  school  and  the  community  are interdependent  and  interrelated  and  for  the  relationship between  them  to  be  meaningful,  worthwhile  and productive,  they  must  be  willing  to  assist  each  other  to achieve  their  respective  goals  in  atmosphere  of  love, mutual trust and cooperation.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

As educators struggle to identify and maximize the use of every resource to improve students’ performance, it is increasingly important that they establish and maintain high levels of parent involvement in their schools. Although parent involvement at the elementary-school level has been studied extensively, more research is needed “to determine why there is a decrease of involvement as the child advances to higher grades” (Smith, 2001, p. 149). The purpose of this  study was to develop a better understanding of the factors that significantly affect the level of parent involvement during the middle-school years.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purposes of this study are:

  1.  To reveal parents’ and teachers’ perceptions towards the PTA in achieving its goals,
  2.  To examine the impact of parent involvement in the academic performance of  students  in the secondary school
  3. To explore factors that have been perceived to promote or inhibit the parents’ involvement in the academic process of students in secondary school
  4. To investigate  the  extent  of  parents’ involvement  in  school  administration  and  its effect on the development of secondary school students.

1.4       Research Questions

  1.  Are there any difference between the perceptions of parents and teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals?
  2.  To what extent does parent involvement in the academic process affect their performance in secondary school?
  3. What factors have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of students in secondary school?
  4. To what extent does parents’ involvement in  school  administration  effect  the development of secondary school students?

 1.5       Research Hypothesis

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1.6       Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help Parents Teachers Association in achieving its school goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their own PTAs, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school.

In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with  many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the rationales and goals set by their own PTAs.

 1.7       Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on the role of Parents Teachers Association in the development of secondary school students in some selected schools in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State. This research work  covers all public secondary schools students in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.

1.8  Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary school in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State as the title suggest.

1.9       Definition of Terms

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Influence of Family Background on Girls Attitude Towards Menstrual Hygiene in Nigeria

RESEARCH PROPOSAL     DOWNLOAD PDF HERE                                   

1.1  Background to the Study
Adolescence is a stage of growth and development in which  major cognitive,
psychological, and physical changes take place. Although both pubertal boys and girls need
to adjust to new role expectations associated with this period of maturation, the physical
changes experienced are different for each sex. For girls,  one of the most memorable and
defining moments of adolescence is menarche, the first menstrual period (Ikaraoha,
Mbadiwe, Igwe and Akagwa, 2005).

Jane (2001) maintained that menarche is a traumatic event during which girls
experience a loss of freedom, power, and spontaneity and that there is a cultural denial of
menarche and menstruation which manifests itself as a decrease in girls’ self-esteem. Cultural
attitudes and family beliefs regarding menstruation  have been shown to have a significant
relationship to the reporting of menstrual symptoms (Jane, 2001).

The meaning of menstruation varies cross-culturally. In  some cultures, the symbolic
polluting power of menstruation  is considered the basis for negative feelings toward female
bodies and the oppression of women, while other cultures  emphasize the symbolic
enhancement of life forces by menstrual blood in rituals (Padez and Rocha, 2003). Ikaraoha
et al (2005) reported that attitudes toward menstruation  among women might be
characterized  into four themes: emphasis on biological processes,  being a normal part of a
woman’s life, link directly to pregnancy, and cleansing the system.

The notion of negativity surrounding  menstruation among families usually holds the
view of unclean menstrual  blood as pollutant, by the maintenance of secrecy and  seclusion
surrounding menstruation, and by physical discomfort  associated with menstruation. In
contrast, families with positive views  about menstruation posit that it revitalizes the body,
clears impurities and is indicative of childbearing potential (Moronkolu and Uzegbu, 2006).
It has been established that menstrual hygiene is influenced by such factors as
socioeconomic class, sports and genetic factors (Diegton, 1993). Studies have shown
that the age is another major factor determing menstrualhygiene especially in the
developed countries (Padez and Rocha, 2003). However, it has been postulated that this
might be due to either the effect of a ceasing improvement of environmental factors
/infrastructure facilities that take care of the young girl.

Many families lack the necessary knowledge about menstrual hygiene and some of
their children too lack accurate knowledge, while others are misinformed. Thus evidence of
menstrual maladjustment and menstrual related problems abound in the society. Future
research into the girls’ attitudes towards menstrual problems and those of their mothers
therefore is warranted. Health education targeting mothers may also benefit their daughters.
Primary health care workers could even encourage girls to adopt the menses chart once their
menarche is reached. Reviewing the menstrual chart with the girls may educate them and
rectify any misconception, and may also lead to earlier management of any underlying
problems.

Given this background, this research examines the family background of students and
how the socio-cultural, economic status, education of parents and religious views held by the
family affect menstrual hygiene among adolescents.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Ignorance concerning sexuality and menstrual hygiene has been identified as a major
factor contributing to teenage pregnancies and infections in young people. menstruation is a
normal female biological milestone and abnormalities of menstruation are a major
gynaecological problem in adolescence. Menstrual disorders include menstrual irregularity,
menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea, and other related symptoms. menstrual irregularity affects
female adolescents, and a frequent cause of absenteeism from school or restriction of daily
activity. Moreover, family beliefs and cultural practices may affect attitudes towards
menstruation, which in turn may influence the views of adolescents on menstrual hygiene. In
many communities, adolescents tend to underutilize health  care services, which may have a
significant impact on the physical and social health of those affected. By contrast, there is
little knowledge on adolescents’ health-seeking behaviour  in regard to menstrual problems.
Availability of such information could be important for the development of appropriate
health care services and in the promotion of menstrual hygiene among girls in Nigerian
secondary schools. The study is set to identify the influence of family background on
adolescents towards menstrual hygiene.

1.3 Research Questions
i.  Would there be difference between religious background of thefamily and
adolescents attitude toward menstrual hygiene?
ii.  Would there be difference between economic status of the parents affect adolescents
attitude toward menstrual hygiene?
iii.  Would there be difference between educational status of parents affect adolescents
attitude toward menstrual hygiene?
iv.  Would there be difference between cultural background of the family and adolescents
attitude toward menstrual hygiene?

1.5 Research Hypotheses
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1.6 Significance of the Study
This will aid our knowledge about sexual health education and how parents influence
the adolescents attitude toward menstrual hygiene.

It will also show why there is need for parents and the school managers should
develop effective communication on educating young people about health education.

This contributes to the types of characteristics that explain the level of influence parents and
religious leaders have on the sexuality and health education of adolescents.

This study will bring about understanding with regard to what problems learners
encounter and what causes their sexual health behaviour. This will then allow the
development of improved strategies of help or intervention either by the teachers or the
parents.

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In this regard,
it will be useful for other researchers who might want to carry out research in related
areas.

1.7  Delimitation of the Study
This research work is delimited to public secondary schools students in Ijebu-Ife
metropolis, an area of Ogun State. The simple percentage method of data analysis will be
adopted to test the variables of family background and adolescents attitude towards
menstrual hygiene.

1.8 Limitation of the Study
Apart from timeframe and shortage of finance, the major limitation to this
research is the inability of the researcher to cover the whole public secondary schools
in Ijebu-Ife metropolis as the title suggest.

1.9  Definition of Terms
Adolescents
Adolescence (from Latin:  adolescere meaning “to grow up”) is a transitional stage of
physical and psychological human development generally occurring between puberty and
adulthood.
Family
In human context, a family (from Latin:  familia) is a group of people affiliated by
consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence.

Menstruation
Menstruation is the shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium). It occurs on a
regular basis in sexually reproductive-age females of certain mammal species. Regular
menstruation (also called eumenorrhea) lasts for a few days, usually 3 to 5 days, but anywhere
from 2 to 8 days is considered normal.

Menstrual Hygiene
Personal hygiene during menstruation includes bathing and showering, and buying and using
sanitary protection products.

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The Influence of Home Environment on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nigeria

Abstract

This study examined the impact of parental involvement on the academic performance of secondary school students using some selected schools in Ago-Iwoye Metropolis, an area of Ogun State as case study. Forty respondents comprising twenty students and twenty parents were randomly selected from the study area. Two hypotheses were developed to test the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school. Questionnaire was used to gather data on gender, age, students’ study skills, socio-economic status of parents, and family description. To determine parenting style, parents completed the Parental Involvement and Dimension Questionnaire. Data was analyzed using chi square. Also, as hypothesized, academic performance of students in the selected schools was significantly positively correlated with a good home environment in the students’ education. The research contends that parental involvement at all grade levels can assist in the academic and behavioral performance of students. Hence, it is suggested that similar research with relevant research methodology should be used in carrying out research in other states of the Federation to ascertain the degree of conformity which this research have on the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1   Background to the Study                        

                   There have been several studies done within and outside Nigeria on the effects of home environment as well as the socio-economic status of parents on the academic achievement of students (Ajila  & Olutola,  2007; Uwaifo, 2012).  Research has found many factors that influence how well a student does in school and the amount of confidence the students have for themselves. However, in Nigeria, like other growing economies, families are finding it more difficult to stay connected with their children’s education. This is most common to families living in mega cities such as Lagos where both parents work outside of the home. Carmen (2007) noted that the extended family has become significantly less extended as mobility has increased. Parents are becoming isolated from their children and finding it difficult to keep a careful watch on what needs to be done to help them succeed in school. Many families are not even led by a parent, but by a grandparent, guardian, or some other adult.

                Prior to this time, in what is sometimes called a traditional Nigerian family environment, parents were able to monitor the school work of their children carefully  and actively participated in Parents-Teachers Associations purposely to monitor the progress of their children. Report cards were valued and trusted in the home as an accurate reflection of academic achievement. Parents were able to keep in touch with the school and the life of their children in the school, and to monitor success or lack thereof. When children came home from school, homework was completed, assignments finished, and other school works were done.

            With the changes in family life and indeed in societal makeup, schools are now finding it increasingly difficult to keep parents informed of and  actively engaged in the day-to-day progress of their children (Deslandes & Bertrand,  2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is not there, because the parents are not home to insist that students complete their assignments.

         It must be noted that while there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to progress academically, Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students academic performance. The family background of the student, however is the most important factor that affects the student’s academic performance. In view of this, Hussain (2006) noted that secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor shows how important the family is to academic achievement of students in secondary schools as well as the centrality of parents to the academic performance of students.

             Influence of home environment in students’ education has been a major topic of study for the later part of the twentieth century.  Baumrind (1971) has been credited for defining three specific parental involvement and their consequences for children. These are (a) authoritative, (b) authoritarian, and (c) permissive involvement of parents in children’s schooling based on levels of warmth and control used by the parent in disciplining the child.  According to Baumrind (1991), parental involvement is meant to capture normal variations in parents attempts to socialize children.  Parental involvement can be both supportive and unsupportive in their tone, both of which affect developmental outcomes and consequences to personality development. Baumrind described how parental involvement affect measures of competence, achievement, and social development.

         Although, students are primarily the ones for whom curricula are designed, textbooks are written, and schools built, parents are primarily the ones held responsible for preparing students for learning – preparation physically, psychologically, behaviorally, attitudinally, emotionally, and motivationally, just to name a few.

        Over the years, numerous theories and associated constructs have been formulated and have evolved to describe and explain these two independent variables, that is, home environment and students academic performance. For example, the behavioral learning theories of Thorndike, Watson, Skinner and, Hull, the cognitive learning theories of Piaget, Kolhberg, and Vygotsky, and the social learning theories of Bandura, have been used to pose and answer questions about students and parents. Dornbusch (1996), found empirical evidence of what most parents and educators know from experience – that parents have a strong influence on secondary school students.

        Steinberg and his colleagues conducted surveys, focus groups, and individual interviews with high school students and parents to better understand how parents, peers and communities influence students’ commitment to school.  The 10-year longitudinal study collected data from 20,000 students and 500 parents in nine ethnically diverse school and communities.  These researchers found that parents’ behaviors send clear and decisive messages about their thoughts and feelings on the importance of schooling.  They also found that parenting style helps or hinders a child’s engagement in school; that encouraging a child to do well in school or insisting that homework be completed were important forms of promoting engagement. These three tenets – communication, influence, and parenting style – are subsets of a larger domain, parental involvement.

           The aforementioned studies are not the only ones that speak to the issue of parenting involvement, but, here, serve only as a way of introducing the broader sphere. In this present study, home environment was studied in reference to its influence on the academic performance of students  in secondary school.

 1.2 Statement of the Problem

        Although, scholars have identified the correlation between parental influences on children academic performance in the primary school, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their academics. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between home environment, with particular reference to parenting style and socio-economic status of parents; and secondary school students’ academic performance.

 1.3. Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study was to examine the influence of home environment on students’ academic performance. This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine the correlation between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school;
  2. Examine factors determining the  home environment;
  3. Investigate the effects of the socio-economic status of parents on student’s academic performance;
  4. Examine the perceptions of students towards their parents in regards to parenting style and their academic performance.

1.4    Research Questions

  1. What relationship exists between the type of parental involvement and secondary school student academic achievement?

2.  Do socio-economic and educational background of parents affect their involvement in their children in secondary schools?

3       Do parenting style and parental involvement directly affect students academic performance?

4 Do perceptions of students about their parents affect their academic performance?

 1.5 Research Hypotheses

H01: There is no statistically significant difference between home environment and academic performance of students in secondary school.

H02: There is no statistically significant difference between socio-economic and educational background of parents and involvement in their children’s education

 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study was limited by a convenience sample of approximately 20 (twenty) students from five secondary schools and 20 (twenty) parents from Ago-Iwoye Metropolis In Ogun State.

Apart from the shortage of fund and time frame, the following limits were found in the study:

1.  It is recognized that not every parent will fit neatly into a particular parenting style.  These parent-child pairs will be discarded from the sample.

2.  Some children will rate their parents as fair when in actuality they are not, therefore there will be some bias in the parents nominations.

3.  It is recognized that a parenting style may be chosen by a family due need rather than desire.

4.  The study was limited to the students whose parents gave consent for their participation, as well as, receiving the students’ assent.

5.  The accuracy of the data was limited by the skills of the researcher and validity of the tests administered.

 

1.7     Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic performance. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It has provide empirical evidence to schools, parents, and students about the nature of parental involvement and how it affects the academic performance of students
  2. It offers a reference for future research that might investigate the same variables.

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms

Home Environment: Home environment refers to aspects of peoples domestic lives that contribute to their living conditions. These factors may be physical (poverty, psychological conditions due to parenting; social circumstances (single parenting) or wider cultural patterns of life related to the location (Urban or rural environments).

Parent:  The term parent as used in this study includes, in addition to a natural  parent, a legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis, such as a grandparent or  stepparent with whom the child lives, or a person who is legally responsible for a child’s welfare.

 Parental Involvement: any form of verbal or non-verbal communication or assistance in reference to a child’s homework.

 Parenting Style: The overall emotional climate of the parent-child relationship- an affective context of sorts that sets the tone for the parents interactions with the child.

 Student academic achievement: This term refers to the student’s overall average  in science, social studies, English, and math, expressed as a percent grade. 

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