1.1       Background to the Study

Parent involvement is a salient predictor of students’ success (Million, 2003). In fact, many researchers suggest that parent involvement positively impacts students’ achievement, attendance, attitudes, behavior, graduation, and life goals (Burke, 2001 and Belenardo, 2001). There is also much evidence that these benefits cross lines of family income and parent education level. In an era characterized by tremendous emphasis on school accountability as measured by students’ performance, education reform measures are replete with components that address parent involvement (Belenardo, 2001).

The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been rigorously advocated in Nigeria in recent years, which aims at the promotion of parent involvement to enhance the educational outcomes of students. The number of PTAs has been increasing drastically. Parents Teachers Association  can  be  identified  as  very  important variable  that  have  potential  for  promoting  directly  or indirectly  student  academic  achievements  (Olatoye  and  Ogunkola,  2008).

Looking  at  the  quality  of  products  that  Nigeria’s secondary  schools  turn  out,  it  appears  the  quality  of education  received  by  the  students  is  low  in  terms  of cognitive,  affective  and  psychomotor  development  there-by  making  the  secondary  school  system  ineffective. Omoregie  (2006)  lamented  that  the  secondary  education which  is  the  pivot  of  the  entire  educational  system  in Nigeria  is  fast  loosing  relevance,  as  it  is  not  fulfilling  the national  objectives  as  set  down  in  the  National  policy  of education.

The  academic performance  of  secondary  school students  could  be attributed  to  several  factors  but  this  study  is  restricted to the role of parents teachers’ association  as  a potential  factor .  It  has  been  noticed  in  some  areas,  that  school  principals  do  not  involve the  parents  in  the  administration  of  the  schools  for fear  of being  criticized.  It  appears  in  some  cases,  parents  are  no longer  allowed  to  participate  in  school  programmes  and parents  are  no  longer  allowed  to  visit  their  children  in school regularly  to  see  how  they  fare.  There  are  instances  where some principals no  longer  make   use   of   the   Parents Teachers  Association  (PTA)  in  school  administration.  All these  tend  to  make  the  parents  handicapped  in  assisting the  school  in  the  provision  of  qualitative  education  to  its students.

According  to  Cotton  and  Wikelund  (2001),  many benefits  are  accrued  for  the  school  and  for  parents themselves  when  parents  become  involved  in  their children’s  school  activities.  They  maintained  that,  school personnel  benefit  from  the  improved  rapport  that generally  accompanies  increased  parents’  involvement.

This  rapport  is  often  expressed  in  parents’  increased willingness  to  support  school  with  their  labour  and resources  during  fund-raising  activities  or  special projects. Besides,  Henderson  (1987),  Hicks  and  Sammons (1992)  and  Hillman  and  Mortimore  (1995)  had  showed  in their  various  studies  that  parental  presence  in  the  school activities  and  participation  in  committees’  events  and other  activities  all  had  positive  effects  on  achievement.

Adewuyi  (2002)  also  submitted  that  active  parent  involvement and positive home-school-community relations have been  shown  to  positively  influence  effective  schooling and students’ achievement. Ajayi  (1999)  also  posited  that,  effective  administration of  schools  could  be  hampered  where  the  PTA  is  not performing  its  roles  as  expected.  Also,  Ajayi  (2007) posited  that,  the  school  and  the  community  are interdependent  and  interrelated  and  for  the  relationship between  them  to  be  meaningful,  worthwhile  and productive,  they  must  be  willing  to  assist  each  other  to achieve  their  respective  goals  in  atmosphere  of  love, mutual trust and cooperation.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

As educators struggle to identify and maximize the use of every resource to improve students’ performance, it is increasingly important that they establish and maintain high levels of parent involvement in their schools. Although parent involvement at the elementary-school level has been studied extensively, more research is needed “to determine why there is a decrease of involvement as the child advances to higher grades” (Smith, 2001, p. 149). The purpose of this  study was to develop a better understanding of the factors that significantly affect the level of parent involvement during the middle-school years.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purposes of this study are:

  1.  To reveal parents’ and teachers’ perceptions towards the PTA in achieving its goals,
  2.  To examine the impact of parent involvement in the academic performance of  students  in the secondary school
  3. To explore factors that have been perceived to promote or inhibit the parents’ involvement in the academic process of students in secondary school
  4. To investigate  the  extent  of  parents’ involvement  in  school  administration  and  its effect on the development of secondary school students.

1.4       Research Questions

  1.  Are there any difference between the perceptions of parents and teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals?
  2.  To what extent does parent involvement in the academic process affect their performance in secondary school?
  3. What factors have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of students in secondary school?
  4. To what extent does parents’ involvement in  school  administration  effect  the development of secondary school students?

 1.5       Research Hypothesis

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1.6       Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help Parents Teachers Association in achieving its school goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their own PTAs, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school.

In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with  many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the rationales and goals set by their own PTAs.

 1.7       Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on the role of Parents Teachers Association in the development of secondary school students in some selected schools in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State. This research work  covers all public secondary schools students in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.

1.8  Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary school in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State as the title suggest.

1.9       Definition of Terms

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Project Topics in International Relations for University Students

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Our list of project topics in International Relation has increased. About 50 International Relations project topics are maintained online (

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Dr. R. O. Ajetunmobi, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria.

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This study focused on the bilateral relationship between Nigeria and the United States of America from 1975 to 1979. The study traced the historical development of Nigeria-US relations  with emphasis on Mohammed /Obasanjo foreign policy posture towards the US Government.It also examines the impact of Mohammed’s policy of confrontation and its far reaching effects on Nigeria-US relations. Moreso, the study analyses Obasanjo’s policy of partnership especially with the Carter administration and the implication of this partnership on Nigeria-US relations. Furthermore, the study discussed the relationship between Nigeria  and  US in key areas such as bilateral trade, oil and gas, power generation, rail transport system, road construction, communication, manufacturing and retail loan finance and general free trade zone. It also examined include politics, military and cultural bilateral relations between the two countries. Attention was also given to the domestic factors that shaped US relations with Nigeria and how Nigeria views the changing role of US government on the African continent. Historical method or approach was employed in this study. Both Primary and Secondary sources were used by the researcher. The study established that Nigeria’s external relation with US has been beneficial to the two countries. Again, it established that the relationship between Nigeria and US is a win-win strategy but this is yet to be thoroughly maximized by the Nigerian government given the political, military, technological and economic base of US as the world Superpower in international politics.