This study intends to investigate the use of adult education as an agent for social change in Nigeria using Lagos State as a case study. While the overall aim of the research is to empirically find out whether adult education has had significant impact on Lagos State, it will also discuss the importance of adult education as well as the challenges facing adult education in Nigeria. The research distinguishes between adult education for working adults and Adult Education as a course of study in the University. This study is centered on adult education for working adults. Using Lagos State as a case study, the research adopts descriptive research survey with focus on adult students offering various courses at Lagos State University. Questionnaire was developed to cover the research questions and hypotheses. A total of 40 respondents are to be used for the study. Chi Square statistical tool will be used for data analysis. Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations on linking adult education to national development will be made in the final chapter.


Complete Project: 65

Pages Literature Review: 2005 Upward

Data Analysis: Chi Square Statistical Tool

Research Population:

40 Adult Education Students Research

Location: Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria

Questionnaire: 20 Items x 40

Respondents References: APA Style, 6th Edition (2010).

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1.1   Background to the Study     

  There have been several studies done within and outside Nigeria on the effects of home environment as well as the socio-economic status of parents on the academic achievement of students (Ajila  & Olutola,  2007; Uwaifo, 2012) .  Research has found many factors that influence how well a student does in school and the amount of confidence the students have for themselves. However, in Nigeria, like other growing economies, families are finding it more difficult to stay connected with their children’s education. This is most common to families living in populated areas such as Lagos where both parents work outside of the home. Carmen (2007) noted that the extended family has become significantly less extended as mobility has increased. Parents are becoming isolated from their children and finding it difficult to keep a careful watch on what needs to be done to help them succeed in school. Many families are not even led by a parent, but by a grandparent, guardian, or some other adult.

                Prior to this time, in what is sometimes called a traditional Nigerian family environment, parents were able to monitor the school work of their children carefully  and actively participated in Parents-Teachers Associations purposely to monitor the progress of their children. Report cards were valued and trusted in the home as an accurate reflection of academic achievement. Parents were able to keep in touch with the school and the life of their children in the school, and to monitor success or lack thereof. When children came home from school, homework was completed, assignments finished, and other school works were done.

With the changes in family life and indeed in societal makeup, schools are now finding it increasingly difficult to keep parents informed of and  actively engaged in the day-to-day progress of their children (Deslandes & Bertrand,  2005). Teachers and administrators are discovering that the support they once received in getting students to do their homework is not there, because the parents are not home to insist that students complete their assignments.

It must be noted that while there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to adjust to the demands of adolscence, Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students. The family background of the student, however is the most important factor that affects the student’s. In view of this, Hussain (2006) noted that secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children.

As a result of the challenges faced by families, many adolescents however engage in unhealthy risk behaviours such as: substance abuse, dangerous dieting, eating disorders, staying out all night, unprotected sexual activity, gang violence, handling weapons, bullying, shoplifting and stealing. Specific problems that can arise from such risky behaviours during adolescence include increased levels of stress, depression, anxiety, anorexia and substance dependence.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Although, scholars have identified the correlation between psycho-social factors and maladjustment among children, it must be noted that secondary school students are different from the typical elementary-aged children and therefore reacts differently to direct parent involvement in their lives. The focus and indeed the intent of this study concern the relationship between psychosocial factors and maladjustment among adolescents in Abuja.

1.3       Research Objectives

The purpose of this study is to investigate psycho-social factors that influence adolescent behaviour.  Specifically, the goal of this study is to determine whether the psychosocial variables of family background, parents’ socio-economic status, peer influence and the adolescents’ self concept have direct effect on their maladjustments. Hence, the general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine the correlation between family background and maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school;
  2. Find out whether parents’ socio-economic status have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school
  3. Investigate the effects of peer group influence on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school;
  4. Examine the whether self-concept have significant effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school

1.4            Research Questions

Is there any correlation between family background and maladjustment among in-school adolescents in Nigeria?

Would parents’ socio-economic status have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

Does peer group influence have any effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

Does self-concept have significant effect on maladjustment among adolescents in secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

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 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study examines the effects of psychosocial variables of family background, parents’ socio-economic status, peer influence and self concept on maladjustments among adolescents in secondary schools using some selected schools in Abuja as case study.

The study will be delimited by a convenience sample of approximately 20 (twenty) students from five secondary schools and 20 (twenty) parents from Abuja.

Apart from the shortage of fund and time frame, the following limits are expected to be encounter in the study:

1.  It is recognized that not every parent will fit neatly into a particular parenting style.  These parent-child pairs will be discarded from the sample.

2.  Some adolescents will rate their parents as fair when in actuality they are not, therefore there will be some bias in the parents nominations.

3.  It is recognized that many adolescents may not give factual information as regards their maladjustments

4.  The accuracy of the data was limited by the skills of the researcher and validity of the tests administered.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the factors that could make or mar students’ during adolescence. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It has provide empirical evidence to schools, parents, and students about the nature of development adolescents may encounter and how it affects their behavior.
  2. It offers a reference for future research that might investigate the same variables.

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 1.1              Background to the Study

 The relationship between school location and school effectiveness has been a perplexing one for educators.  Studies have found that the physical environment, locality of school in rural or urban area, socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, ethnic location of the school, overcrowded classrooms built near market centres, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, school plant planning, among others, are all school locational variables that significantly affect school effectiveness (Adewuyi, 2002; Ahmed,  2003; and Ijeoma, 2007)

School effectiveness in this context refers to the extent to which schools are able to accomplish their pre-determined objectives. School effectiveness transcends beyond students passing final examinations. It also encompasses students’ attainment in other domains of learning (the affective and the psychomotor domains). According to Bandele (2002), these other domains, apart from having influence on the cognitive achievement, also make the beneficiary of the education system live a fulfilled life and contribute meaningfully to the development of the society.

School effectiveness research started in the mid-1960s with the Coleman Report (Coleman et al. 1966) in the United States. Since then, there are three distinct but  inter-related  branches  of  school  effectiveness  research,  namely,  (a)  school  effects research – i.e.  scientific  properties  of  school  effects,  e.g.  the  size  of  school  effects,  (b) effective schools research – i.e. process oriented study of characteristics of effective schools, and  (c)  school  improvement  research – focusing  and  limiting  its  test  of  specific  models  of effective schools. It must be noted that most of school effectiveness research studies have traditionally come from USA, UK and some continental European countries, in particular, the Netherlands. Much is yet to be examined on the effects of school locational factors on school effectiveness in Nigeria.

Nigeria as a nation strives to experience real growth and development. This requires a clearly defined development strategy that allows intensive utilization of resources which is endowed. These resources are the various school physical facilities that are indispensable in the educational process. They include the sitting, the building and physical equipment, recreation places for the achievement of educational objectives (Oluchuckwu, 2000).

School location with its attendant features of instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in the teaching-learning process. The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location in the locality, within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These factors can adversely affect student behavior and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student.

Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic performance of students.

Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with student-teacher ratio, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in the classroom with student health problems, student behavior, and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2001; Johnson, 2001; Lyons, 2001;Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement these studies, the present research examines the aforementioned areas of school locational factors such as location of the school itself, class size, school facilities, and school population affect the effectiveness of schools in Nigeria.

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Emphasizing the importance of school location  to school effectiveness started with Coleman’s Report (Coleman et al. 1966) in the United States. Since then, various researches have been conducted on school effectiveness. These researches, however, were centred on the developed countries. With the exception of few works (Isaac  et al, 2010; Adewuyi, 2002; Ahmed,  2003; and Ijeoma, 2007), no serious attempt has been made to study how  school locational factors serve as determinants of school effectiveness in Nigerian secondary schools. It is on this basis that the present study seeks to unravel how location of the school itself, class size, school facilities, and school organization are structurally significant to an effective school.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The purposes of this study are:

  1. To examine the relationship between school location and school effectiveness
  2. To examine the impact of school facilities on the effectiveness of schools
  3. To explore factors such as class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibit students learning in the academic process of students in secondary school
  4. To investigate the extent to which school organization affects the effectiveness of the school

1.4     Research Questions

  1.    Is there any relationship between school location and school effectiveness?
  2.     To what extent do school facilities affect school effectiveness?
  3.   What effect does class size has on the academic performance of students in secondary school?
  4.  To what extent does school organization has on the effectiveness of the school?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

Ho1      There is no significant difference between school location and school effectiveness

Ho2      There is no significant difference between school facilities and school effectiveness

Ho3      There is no significant difference between class size and academic performance  of students

Ho4      There is no significant difference between school organization and school effectiveness

 1.6     Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that can aid the school to be effective in helping students to achieve their goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing these recommended factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with  many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic performance of student in secondary school.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on school locational factors as determinants ofschool effectiveness. This research work covers all public secondary schools students in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.

 1.8  Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary school in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State as the scope of the study suggest.

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