Impact of Principals’ Motivation Techniques on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1       Background to the Study

This study investigates the relationship between teachers’ motivation and student’s academic performance using some selected junior secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. Studies have shown that teachers’ satisfaction with school leadership determines their involvement and commitment to duty (Silins & Mulford, 2002). Teachers’ job satisfaction, learning and development in Nigeria have called for school leadership that is transformational in adoption of different motivational techniques. Studies have revealed high level of teacher satisfaction and learning in school systems where transformational leadership is implemented (Silins & Mulford, 2002). Previous investigations on teachers’ job satisfaction revealed that lack of effective motivation on the part of the school principals’, the school facilities and the government negatively affects teachers’ job satisfaction and at the long run have a negative impact on the academic performance of the student. (Bogler, 2002).

Some junior secondary school teachers had expressed dissatisfaction with their work due to unconducive environment created by administrative flaws (Bolger, 2002). It also has been revealed that teachers feel dissatisfied in school environments that do not provide opportunities for teacher development (Conley, Bas-Isaac & Brandon, 1998). These problems, coupled with the challenges of global economy pose a major concern to the government and boards of education. Principals therefore are required to exhibit appropriate motivational techniques as well as leadership skills to motivate teachers to maximize input, which might be expressed in teacher commitment to duty and student achievement.

  Student achievement is expected to be high to satisfy parents and stakeholders, and to match with the present world of technology. Teachers’ dissatisfaction at work place has been seen to be one of the problems drawing this dream away from reality (Zembylas & Papanastasiou, 2004). The quest for teachers’ motivation and job satisfaction for effective classroom instruction is a major issue facing Nigeria today.

Aghenta, (2000) asserts that some external factors, such as bad roads (leading to the schools), lack of funds, poor infrastructures and instructional materials deter the efforts of teachers. Aka (2001) blames it on dubious  legacies of military  rule and the neglect of education in the second republic. Olumfemi (1976) focuses attention on poor payment of teachers and lack of instructional materials as responsible for low job satisfaction of teachers and poor performance of students, while Fafunwa (1974) pointed accusing fingers at lack of financial assistance. Hence, how  effective  the  principal  is  in  motivating their teachers has been  a  matter  of  concern  to many educationists (Ige, 2001).

It  is  therefore  not  surprising  that  there  is  pressure mounted  on  effective  leadership  among  principals  of secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. It seems how-ever that many principals have not considered their styles of  leadership  as  determinants  of  teachers’  job  satisfaction among teachers in their schools. Hence, some of them seem to find  it  difficult  to  effectively  administer  their  schools (Adeyemi,  2004).

As  such,  leadership style occupies an important position in school management in Plateau State, Nigeria. The school principal is in a unique  position  as  the  manager  or  administrator  who controls schools’ resources for  the  purpose  of  attaining organizational goals.  Hence, the aspects of motivational techniques to be studied include:  Shared decision-making, professional development of teachers, use of merit based rewards and recognition of teachers performance.

Teachers have both intrinsic and extrinsic needs. A teacher who is intrinsically motivated may be observed to undertake a task for its own sake, for the satisfaction it provides or for the feeling of accomplishment and self-actualization. On the other hand, an extrinsically motivated teacher may perform the activity/duty in order to obtain some reward such as salary. Extrinsic motivation plays an important part in people’s life. It is pre-eminent in influencing a person’s behaviour. Therefore, the aim of a school should be to build on and enhance the intrinsic motivation for teachers to teach effectively and at the same time, to supply some extrinsic motivation along the way for school improvement (O’neil, 1995).

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Based on past literature, motivation has many separate ingredients. Maslow, Herzberg, Vroom, Lawler, McGregor, and Bandura, among others, described theories which help to explain a person’s motivation. Measuring motivation for teachers is complicated since there are many facets to motivation.  Today’s businesses are encouraged to work in teams and produce high quality products at the lowest price possible. In the same vein, teachers should also be encouraged to work in teams and produce high quality students like their business counterparts.

Since studies are yet to be comprehensively carried out on the impact of principals’ motivation techniques on teachers’ job satisfaction which this study seeks to examine within the Nigerian context.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between principals’ motivation techniques and teacher’s job satisfaction. The specific objectives are to:

i)  Find out the extent to which principals’ motivation techniques predict teachers’ job satisfaction.

ii) Analyze principals who award monetary incentives more likely to use motivational techniques in working with teachers than those which were not awarding monetary incentives

iii) Examine whether there is any significant difference in teachers’ job performance in schools having principals using positive motivational techniques and  schools  having  principals’ using autocratic technique

iv) Discuss the various leadership  style  is  most  commonly  used  by school  principals  in  senior  secondary  schools

1.4       Research Questions

i.    To what extent do principals’ motivation techniques predict teachers’ job satisfaction?

ii.  Do principals who award monetary incentives more likely to use motivational techniques in working with teachers than those which were not awarding monetary incentives?

iii.  Is there any significant difference in teachers’ job performance in schools having principals using positive motivational techniques and  schools  having  principals’ using autocratic technique?

iv.    Which  leadership  style  is  most  commonly  used  by school  principals  in  junior secondary  schools  in   Nigeria?

1.5       Research Hypothesis

Ho1      There is no significant difference between principals’ motivation techniques and teachers’ job satisfaction

Ho2.     There is no significant difference between principals who award monetary incentives more likely to use motivational techniques in working with teachers and those which were not awarding monetary incentives?

1.6       Significance of the Study

For the past three decades, leadership, teachers’ job satisfaction and academic standards in the Nigerian secondary schools have deteriorated (Bassey, 1999). There have been strong feelings about  the types of leadership styles and motivation techniques and the need to review them. Investigating the relationship between principals’ motivation techniques in motivating their teachers towards job satisfaction might go a long way in helping researchers in their efforts to review some of the administrative problems besieging the Nigerian schools.

This study will be of help to the ministry of education in Nigeria by enabling them to examine the administrative governance of schools as it affects job satisfaction of secondary school teachers. It is also anticipated that this study will help educators see the need for adjustments and flexibility in school administration. It is intended that this study  will provide some insights for researchers in the field of educational leadership in their search for solutions to some of the administrative problems besieging the Nigerian secondary schools.

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In  this  regard,  it  will  be  useful  for  other  researchers  who might want to carry out research in related areas.

 

1.7             Scope of the Study

The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between principals’ motivation techniques and teachers’ job satisfaction using some selected secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State.

1.8       Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary sschools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State as the title suggest.

1.9       Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined as they apply to this study:

Job satisfaction is defined as how well a person likes his or her job

Principal motivational techniques – Methods which a principal may use to motivate teachers such as shared decision-making, goal-setting, professional development, and a belief in the teacher’s ability to perform the desired tasks.

School-based performance award – An award system for teachers, which encourages collaborative work of a school to r each specific performance goals.

Motivation: Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas.

 Download Table of Content + Chapter One (Free)  MSWORD

Request for the complete material (Nigeria N5000 or $50)

2348077447220, 2348074472654 , 08139075935

omoteretope@gmail.com.

Advertisements

Education Project Topics

EDUCATION TOPICS (COST 4,000 EACH)

  1. THE EFFECTS OF STUDY HABIT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGUN STATE
  2. THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON CHOICE OF CAREER AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA
  3. AGE, SEX AND TEST ANXIETY AS PREDICTORS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
  4. THE CHALLENGES AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
  5. THE INFLUENCE OF PEER GROUP PRESSURE ON ADOLESCENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS
  6. INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND PEER GROUP ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS: CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE
  7. EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ COMPETENCE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
  8. THE IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ TEACHING METHODS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE
  9. EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ PERSONALITY ON SECONDARY SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
  10. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF FEMALE SCHOOL TEACHER LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN NIGERIA
  11. INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON UNDERGRADUATES’ PERCEPTION OF COURTSHIP AND PRE-MARITAL SEX
  12. INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS MENSTRUAL HYGIENE IN IJEBU-IFE METROPOLIS
  13. A STUDY OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN WAMAKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE
  14. INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON THE LEARNING ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS SEX EDUCATION IN IJEBU-IFE METROPOLIS
  15. INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE
  16. AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS
  17. EVALUATION OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL WITH COUNSELLING SERVICE
  18. IMPACT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES AND STUDENTS CAREER CHOICE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGOJA L.G.A
  19. THE EFFECT OF LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENT’S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN IKORODU LGA OF LAGOS STATE
  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS TO MATHEMATICS AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN UGHELLI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE
  21. SCHOOL LOCATIONAL VARIABLES AS DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE
  22. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF READING HABITS AND THE STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE

AGE, GENDER, AND YEARS OF EXPERIENCE AS PREDICTORS OF JOB PERFORMANCE AMONG NON-ACADEMIC STAFF ADMINISTRATORS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

1.1       Background to the Study

Job performance is among the most explored concepts in employee and organizational research (Bardett & McKinney, 2004). Researchers have taken special interest in job performance because of its humanitarian, hypothetical, and fiscal significance to an organization (Balzer et al., 1997). There is, however, a lack of job performance research focused on university non-academic staff employees, a group many universities rely upon for the management of their daily operations.

Age variables have received of attention of scholars over the past few years, and there has been a good deal of research that has demonstrated significant relationships between various personality facets including age and job performance. More recent studies have focused on which specific aspects of age are most predictive of job performance, with a particular focus on those nearing retirement (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). Age, in this sense refers to both young adults who are energetic as well as those nearing retirement age and how it affects their job performance.

In Nigeria, retirement has traditionally been associated with a permanent exit from the workforce around the age of 65. Most government and private pensions take effect at this age making retirement a viable option for older employees. However, as changes have occurred in society so has the nature of retirement. As a result, more and more people are choosing to retire before the age of 65 (Dada and Idowu, 2006). Explanations for the increase in early retirement have stemmed from a number of changes including shifts in workforce demographics, advances in technology, fluctuations in the economy, and progress in legislation. Some of these factors have reduced the demand for older workers, making early retirement an attractive option. For instance, increases in the number of youths and women, entering the labour force have resulted in the displacement of many older workers. Technological changes have also made some of their skills obsolete. For these individuals, taking early retirement might be a better option than competing with a younger, more diverse workforce for jobs or finding ways to update their skills. This, however, have direct effect on the performance of workers in the university setting.

Research on the relationship between gender and job performance indicates that organizational policies on women contribute to cultural biases and values which invariably affect their performance in the work place (Cascio & Aguinis, 2005). In most cases, these original rules, policies, and practices have been modified very little to account for the enormous influx of diversity into the workplace, resulting in reduced opportunities for the women in the organization. Gender could affect the job performance of administrators in the university (Kawakami, White, & Langer, 2000). A key premise of the current research is that job performance can be affected by the combined effects of gender-role stereotypes held by job raters thereby creating negative consequences for job performance among non-academic women  in the university.

Research on years of experience of workers reveals that it is a good predictor of job performance among non-academic staff in universities (Culp, 2005). Higher education institutions of all types and sizes are being encouraged to be diverse and retain those with a vast  years of experience in the administrative field. According to Culp (2005), this will make the institution to be more to be accessible and to offer quality programs in order to meet the needs and wants of their students. Although differences are evident between federal, state and privately owned private universities in Nigeria, institutions still must encourage all departments on campus to enhance their programs and improve effectiveness and help build awareness and pride among the staff and students. Having a thorough understanding of how higher education administrators function helps universities and colleges identify what departmental programs and services have the greatest amount of influence on the overall productivity of the college campus.

Studying job performance allows campus administrators to identify what long-established institutional behaviors and actions give them satisfaction in their work performance. Performance in the workplace should instill a positive work environment and continue to impede adaptability and positive change (Sopow, 2006). If campus administrators are to assume responsibility for managing their work environment, further research is needed to assess the relationship between age, gender, and years of experiences of campus administrator‘s  and their job performance.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Over the years, higher education has experienced a major transformation in its overall complexity, diversity, and significance. Universities and colleges have had to adapt to a variety of issues and conditions that require higher education administrators to be innovative and resourceful when developing strategies that increase academic achievement and student learning. In order to balance internal and external pressures for student learning strategies it has become important that higher education administrators continue to explore what academic and administrative functions impact students on a university campus. Given these expectations for student learning, higher education administrators have developed, maintained, and enhanced institutional quality and effectiveness. Having administrators identify and evaluate what institutional programs and services create a social and intellectual environment for students helps to build a successful institutional climate and culture.

1.3         Purpose of the Study

The general aim of this research is to examine the age, gender, and years of experiences as predictors of job performance among non-academic staff administrators using Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun as case study. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were set:

  1.  To Find out whether age predicts job performance among administrators
  2.  Find out if gender of the administrator has any relationship with job performance in the workplace
  3.  Find out if years of experience may affect the job performance of administrators at the workplace
  4.  To find out if job performance may depend on such factors as age, gender and years of experience of administrators.

1.4       Research Question

The research will answer the question:

  1.  Is there any significant difference between age of administrators and their job performance in the workplace?
  2.  Is there any significant difference between gender of administrators and their job performance in the workplace?
  3.  Is there any significant difference between years of experience and their job performance in the workplace?
  4.  What impact does age, gender and years of experience of administrators have on their job performance

 1.5       Research Hypotheses

Ho1 There is no statistically significant difference between the age of administrators and their job performance in the workplace

Ho2 There is no statistically significant difference gender of administrators and their job performance in the workplace

Ho3 There is no statistically significant difference between years of experience and their job performance in the workplace

Ho4 There is no statistically significant difference age, gender and years of experience of administrators and their job performance

1.6       Scope of the Study

            This study centers on the correlation between age, gender, and years of experiences and job performance among non-academic staff administrators using Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun as case study. Forty non-academic members of staff of TASUED will be randomly selected as respondents. The study covers eight years (2005 to 2013) period.

1.7       Limitations of the Study

Apart from short of fund and timeframe to conduct the study, this study is further limited by the following factors:

  1.  An attitudinal scale is going to be used by the researcher to measure job performance in the study. Opinions and perceptions of university administrators may change with time and may be affected by non-work variables. In addition, an employee‘s work environment, individual responsibilities, and positions may change. Therefore, levels of job performance may change.
  2.  Findings are going to be based on self-reported responses to the job performance questionnaire and, therefore, rely on the accurate self-assessment, honesty, and motivation of responders.
  3. Testing job performance over an extended period of time among members of staff in the university will be limited to five years study, despite that most members of non-academic staff of the university were formerly members of staff in the then Tai Solarin College of Education, Ijagun.

1.8       Significance of the Study

This will aid our knowledge about job performance and how various factors affect the performance of non academic administrative staff in higher institution in Nigeria. It will also show why there is need for the government and the institutions to develop effective communication on organizing seminars and workshops for administrators to enable them perform better at their workplace.

This study will bring about understanding with regard to what problems administrators encounter in performing their duties at the workplace. This will then allow the development of improved strategies of help or intervention either by the government, corporate institutions, the universities societies, groups and individuals on solving those problems.

This study is deemed important given the scarcity of adequate literature or studies on the relationship between the age, gender and years of experience as predictors of job performance among non-academic staff in Nigerian universities.

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In  this  regard,  it  will  be  useful  for  other  researchers  who might want to carry out research in related areas.

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms

Examination: examination is a way to ascertain how much of a subject matter in a particular field of study the candidate has mastered. In other words, it is a process through which studies are evaluated or tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within a specific period.

Age: the chronological age of a person

Gender: the state of a being female or male

Job Performance: Job performance is a commonly used, yet poorly defined concept in industrial and organizational psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. It’s also part of Human Resources Management. It most commonly refers to whether a person performs their job well.

FOR TABLE OF CONTENT DOWNLOAD THE PDF OR MS-WORD VERSION.

DOWNLOAD PDF VERSION (JOB-PERFORMANCE)

DOWNLOAD MS-WORD VERSION (JOB-PERFORMANCE)

REQUEST FOR FULL PROJECT (Cost: NIGERIA 5000.    INTERNATIONAL $50).

Online Payment (ATM Processed by VoguePay)

Cash Payment (Bank)

CALL: 08077447220, 08074472654, 0813975937

EMAIL: omoteretope@gmail.com

AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

ABSTRACT

The relationship between class size and academic performance has been a perplexing one for educators. Although, several scholars have proposed various factors responsible for the poor performance of students, few research have been dedicated to the correlation between class size and academic achievement of students. This study therefore examines the relationship between class size and academic performance of students using some selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government area of Lagos State as case study. Four null hypotheses were raised and analysed using the simple percentage statistical analysis. Based on the findings, it was discovered that large class size negatively affects students’ academic performance. The study recommends that a national policy on teacher-student ratio should be implemented. More qualified teachers should be employed and  workshops should be organized for already employed ones. More classrooms should be built with up-to-date facilities and improve on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) that would aid teaching-learning process.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

 1.1     Background to the Study

The relationship between class size and academic performance has been a perplexing one for educators. Studies have found that the physical environment, class overcrowding, and teaching methods are all variables that affect students’ achievement (Molnar, et al., 2000).  Other factors that affect student achievement are school population and class size (Gentry, 2000; and Swift, 2000).

          The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the decline in standard of education. Since the academic success of students depends largely on the school environment, it is imperative to examine the impact variables  of class size and school population on the academic performance of students in secondary school.

          Large class size and over populated schools have direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because large class size do not allow individual student to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance.

In order to better understand the skill levels of students, it might be necessary to evaluate factors affecting their performance. These factors can include: school structure and organization, teacher quality, curriculum, and teaching philosophies (Driscoll, Halcoussis, & Svorny, 2003). The idea that school population and class size might affect student performance is consistent with the growing literature on the relationship between public sector institutional arrangements and outcomes (Moe, 1984). The purpose of this study is to further examine the relationship of class size, school population and student academic achievement

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The performance of secondary school students in NECO, WAEC and JAMB calls for proper investigation. Although, several scholars have proposed various factors responsible for the poor performance of students, few research have been dedicated to the correlation between class size, school population and academic achievement of students. This study therefore looks at how class size affect students’ academic performance in secondary schools.

1.3            Objectives of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between class size and student achievement using some selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State as case study. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Examine the relationship between class size and academic performance of students
  2. Examine the relationship between school population and academic performance of students
  3. Discuss the effects of over-population on classroom management
  4. Analyse the impact of over-population on school resources and facilities

 

1.4             Research Questions

       i.            Is there any correlation between class size and academic performance of students?

    ii.            Is there any relationship between school population and academic performance of students?

 iii.            Is there any relationship between over population and classroom management?

 iv.            Is there any relationship between over population and school resources/ facilities?

1.5            Research Hypothesis

Ho1      There is no significant relationship between class size and academic performance of students

Ho2      There is no significant relationship between school population and academic performance of students

Ho3      There is no significant relationship between over population and classroom management

Ho4      There is no significant relationship between over population and school resources/ facilities

1.6              Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on the relationship between class size and student achievement using some selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State as case study. This research  work  covers all public secondary schools students in Agege Local Government Area Of Lagos State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.

1.7                      Significance of the Study

This study is important for several reasons.

First, the findings will  help  teachers to identify the reasons for the academic performance of students in large classes with high population and how they can address the problems;

Second,  it  will  provide  comprehensive  information  for  educational planners, educators,  and  parents  on  how  they  can  assist  students to cope in large classes;

Third,  this  research  work  will  lead  to  further  in-depth  study  on the impact of class size and school population on the academic performance of students in Nigeria;

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In  this  regard,  it  will  be  useful  for  other  researchers  who might want to carry out research in related areas

1.8     Research Methodology      

A descriptive research design will be use in carrying out this study. The sample for this study constitutes one hundred (100) respondents. For this research work, random sampling technique will be used. This study will be restricted to the categories of teachers and students the researcher considered essentially relevant to issues being investigated. Simple percentage statistical analysis will be used for the study.

1.9     Definition of Terms

Academic Achievement – Knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects by  test scores.

Secondary school (also “high school”) is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place. It follows elementary or primary education, and may be followed by university (tertiary) education.

Overpopulation: This is when the number of students in a particular class exceeds the standard of student-teacher ratio of 1:30.

FOR TABLE OF CONTENT DOWNLOAD THE WORD OR PDF VERSION.

REQUEST FOR FULL PROJECT (Cost: NIGERIA 4000      INTERNATIONAL $50).

CALL: 08077447220, 08074472654, +2348077447220  (Email: omoteretope@gmail.com )