IMPACT OF THE BOKO HARAM TERRORISM ON NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA, 2009-2017

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Objectives of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Scope of the Study

1.6       Limitations of the Study

1.7       Significance of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0       Introduction

2.1       Background information on Nigeria

2.2       Theoretical Framework

2.2.1    Federalism as a Theoretical Framework

2.3       National Integration

2.4       Integrative Mechanisms and the Failure of National Integration in Nigeria

2.5       Failure of National Integration and Rise of Boko Haram Terrorism

2.6       Boko Haram Insurgency

2.6.1    Dimensions of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria

2.6.2    Targets/Opponents

2.6.3.   Group Affiliations/Training

2.6.5    Finance/Funding

2.6.6    Recruitment

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0       Introduction

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Population of the Study

3.3       Sample and Sampling Procedure

3.4       Instrument of Data Collection

3.5       Validity of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7      Procedure for Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

1.1       Background to the Study

Nigeria is a large multi-ethnic country where intra-ethnic cleavages remain a critical problem and ethnic violence has erupted periodically. Among the prominent conflicts in Nigeria were: Ife-Modakeke Crisis in Osun State; Yoruba-Hausa Clashes in Sagamu, Ogun State; Eleme-Okrika Conflict in Rivers State; Zango-Kataf in Kaduna State; Tiv-Jukun in  Wukari, Taraba State; Ogoni-Adoni in Rivers State; Chamba-Kuteb in Taraba State;  Itsekiri-Ijaw/Urhobo in Delta State; Aguleri-Umuleri in Anambra State; Ijaw-Ilaje  conflict in Ondo State; Basa-Egbura in Nassarawa State; Hausa/Fulani-Sawaya in Bauchi, among others. These conflicts have provided a pattern that makes scholars to attribute their causes to greed, power and wealth distribution.

The year 2014 marked one hundred years of the British amalgamation of Northern and Southern protectorates to form one political entity which is officially known and addressed as Nigeria. Two personalities were important in Nigeria’s integration process– Lord Frederick Lugard the then Governor General and Flora Shaw (later wife of Lugard), former correspondent of the London Times, who suggested the name- Nigeria.  Ever since this merger, the polity has been characterized by ethno-religious crises which have affected national unity.

Campbell (2014) is of the view that bad governance and corruption gave rise to religious extremism, poverty, corruption and ethnic rivalry. Given this background, Boko Haram founder, Mohammed Yusuf (1970 –2009) exploited the situation by criticizing the Nigerian government of deliberate persecution of poor Muslims (Vangaurd, 2009). Since Boko Haram’s foundation in 2002, the group has attacked churches, mosques, markets, banks, telecommunication facilities, military barracks, police stations, schools, local government secretariats, among others.

National integration is defined by these political scholars as “the unification or bringing together of diversified components either at international, regional, sub-regional, national or state/local community level.” (Philip  and  Henry, 1964). In Nigeria, the various integrative mechanisms put up by different administrations include the amalgamation of 1914, the Nigerianisation policy of 1960-1966, the National Youth Service Corps, the Unity Schools, the National Language policy, the principle of Federal Character and the creation of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. All of these were meant to promote national unity in Nigeria.

Between 2009 and 2017, Nigeria witnessed the height of Boko Haram terrorism The study shall proceed to examine the rise of Boko Hara, within the framework of a failed national integration process.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Boko Haram is a transnational terrorist group whose operations in northeastern Nigeria, southern Niger and northern Cameroon have led to the killing of over 30,000 civilians and displacement of 2.3 million people. Between 2009 and 2014, Boko Haram insurgency promoted extreme poverty, food crises, mass migration, fragile governance, corruption, illicit trafficking and terrorist-linked security threats. It did not only affect people in northeastern states but had a significant impact on national integration.  While efforts have been made by scholars to investigate the problems of national integration in Nigeria, none has done so within the purview of Boko Haram terrorism. This study therefore seek to examine the impact of Boko Haram terrorism on national integration in Nigeria.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this study is to examine theImpact of Boko Haram Terrorism on National Integration in Nigeria from 2009 to 2017. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following objectives:

  • Provide a historical background to the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria;
  • Examine the concept of national integration;
  • Analyse impact of Boko Haram attacks on integrative mechanisms in Nigeria
  • Examine the impact of Boko Haram attacks on intra-ethnic relations in Nigeria

1.4       Research Questions

  • What is the historical background to the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria?
  • What does national integration mean?
  • How has Boko Haram attacks affected  integrative mechanisms in Nigeria?
  • What effect has Boko Haram attacks had on intra-ethnic relations in Nigeria?

1.5       Scope of the Study

  • This study covers theimpact of Boko Haram Terrorism on national integration in Nigeria from 2009 to 2017. Although, outside of the scope, the study made efforts to  look at the emergence of Boko Haram in 2002 as well as the patterns of attacks in northeastern states of Nigeria. Furthermore, the concept of  national integration was examined with focus on how Boko Haram insurgency has affected the implementation integrative mechanisms in Nigeria; as well as intra-ethnic relations in Nigeria.

1.6       Limitations of the Study

In producing such a work like this, the problem confronting the researcher is subjective nature of available materials. Moreso, this research work is contemporary and politically sensitive.  The researcher therefore is confronted with the problem of interpretation of the actions of Nigerian leaders towards the democratisation process of Nigeria as some of the policies initiated are still an on-ongoing process. Lastly, there is the question of time and fund which may serve as impediments to this research.

Nevertheless, these limitating factors will greatly be managed to make the research work more objective in its presentation.

1.7       Significance of the Study

The problem of national integration in Nigeria is central to this research. This study therefore is an attempt towards finding a theoretical solution to the problems militating against national integration in Nigeria. It is on this basis that this study is important for certain reasons.

First, the study is of paramount importance to decision makers and the would-be leaders for it traces the historical development of the challenges that confronted Nigeria from 2009 to 2017.

Second, it re-affirms the bold attempt made by the Nigerians in sustaining national integration through the war on terror.

Third, this research work will help in providing information on the internal factors that has continually hindered good governance in Nigeria as well as the practise of democracy.

Fourth, it is useful to scholars’ especially diplomatic historians, political scientists, economists and international relations experts who are conducting research in related field.

Finally, the political and military class will learn, through this study, the need for them to be patriotic and develop Nigeria.

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EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON WOMEN IN NIGERIA

Introduction

Divorce is a phenomenon that affects the emotional, physical and social well being of the divorcees and those close to them. Most people do not enter into marriage with the intention of getting divorced. But divorce in a rapidly changing, industrialising Nigeria is fast becoming a common event, something that many will experience, or have already experienced.  In Nigeria, the divorce rate according to Alice (2012 citing the Almanac Book of Facts), was over 12,000 every year since 1975. Although, statistical records of marital instability are not compiled in Nigeria as yet. But Newspaper often reports cases of marital disruption on a weekly basis in Lagos and its environs. In Kwara State, the Ministry of Information and Culture recorded that 1,697 Marriages were registered for both the Churches and Marriage Registry from 1984-1988. During the same period (1984-88) there were 12,104 divorces (Court Case File, Child Welfare Centre and Oja-oba Area Courts, Ilorin). According to these records, the rate of divorces over marriages is at 71% approximately 7 divorces to every marriage (7:1). This shows that in Nigeria, a lot of couples did not go through the court, church or mosque to conduct their wedding but approach the court for dissolution of marriages.

Women experiencing divorce often find themselves in a situation that is not shared by friends and family.  The problems they experience are different to those experienced by other members of their community, and consequently, they may feel isolated from the community. Demographers predict that more than 45% of first-time marriages in the 21st  century will eventually end in divorce (Amato, 2010; Cherlin, 2010; Clarke-Stewart & Brentano, 2006). Research is plentiful on the topic of divorce, particularly as they affect children of the divorcees. However, there are limited data and scholarly works on the impact of divorce on women in Nigeria. It is on this basis that this study addresses the impact of divorce on women with specific reference to financial status, emotional well-being, and self-esteem.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.2.1 Conceptualizing of Divorce
2.2.2 Causes of Divorce
2.3 Divorce and women financial status
2.4 Divorce and women emotional well being
2.5 Divorce and women self esteem

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
3.5 Procedure of Administration
3.6 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Answers to Research Hypotheses
4.2 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

REFERENCES
APPENDICES

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