THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

Chapter One: Introduction

Youth development can be more than acquiring a set of facts, learning about rights and obligations, and becoming an informed young adult. Youth development is a process that prepares a young person to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood and achieve his or her full potential. Hence, youths are expected to acquire skills before they become adults. When youths lack skills, it is inevitable that they will experience difficulties in their adulthood as well as their chosen occupation. Unfortunately, many students are characterised by a lack of good skills. This is manifested by, inter alia, their incapability to effectively use the library, network, build on vocational skills, source for quality academic works online or take meaningful notes during field work. More recently, studies have shown that youth have turn to the use of social media as their primary means of communication, so much that when they want to use the internet for quality information or school work, they soon forget their purpose of going online and start updating their status on social networking sites (SNSs)

With the ever increasing use of social media by Nigerian youth, there has been a growing concern among educators, parents, researchers and general public that this practice has serious implications on the holistic development of the Nigerian youth. Various studies on the effects of social media on youth have concentrated mainly on academic performance (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010; Oluwatoyin 2011; and Ogedebe, Emmanuel, & Musa, 2012).  This research shifts its attention away from this and rather focuses on how social media affects youth development. Thus, posers arise as to what are the social media use patterns of Nigerian youths? What influence do the use patterns have on the social development of Nigerian youths? It is in the quest to resolve these posers that this study is examining the perceived effects of social media use patterns on the social development of Nigerian youths. This study therefore examines the effects of social media on Nigerian youths.

The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of social media on youth’s development in Nigeria. Specifically, this study seeks to:

  1. Examine the relationship between the use of social media and entrepreneurship among youth;
  2. Examine the relationship between the use of social media and political participation
  3. Examine the relationship between the use of social media and language disruption;
  4. Examine the relationship between the use of social media and cyber-crime among youth;

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the effects of social media on youth development in Nigeria. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses a descriptive survey type. The target population consisted of some selected secondary schools students. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary and Conclusion

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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IMPACT OF SCHOOL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT ON LEARNING OUTCOME OF STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE

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Chapter One: Introduction

The sustainability of schools relies in part on the availability and utilization of funds available to support recurrent costs for systems upkeep at the school level. Studies (Bada and Oguguo, 2011) shows that heads of schools report shortages of funds which impact on the daily running of school programmes. Almost all institutions and organizations in Nigeria have been affected by recessions (Bada and Oguguo, 2011). During economic downturns, the world seems to focus on managing budgets. Since 2008 the federal government has taken dramatic measures to help the financial state of many institutions struggling with the current recession. Of those measures, massive bailout packages worth billions of dollars have been proposed and passed to help institutions across the nation.

Educational leaders have long sought to understand how to allocate finance to improve school and students’ learning outcome. Schools receive funding for the sole purpose of improving educational opportunities and achievement for students. Yet the benefits of increasing that finance are widely disputed. Research conducted outside Nigeria indicates that the level of finance in a school does make a difference in student achievement (Odden, Goertz, & Goertz, 2008).  However, limited research exists in Nigeria on whether increases in funding, utilized effectively and efficiently, does increase student achievement. Financing is often challenging to study because of the lack of disaggregation of district and school level expenditures. Educational boards have not historically kept track of categories of expenditures and are unable to aide researchers in their quest for financial data separated by theme.

Many issues amplify the importance of effective financing and management because of the implications on school funding for primary schools. Funding  for  basic  education  has  come  primarily  from  federal  and  local governments finance over the years; state governments have tended to prioritize tertiary education relying on local governments’ finance for primary education. A general lack of accountability inherent in current  practices  leads  to  inefficiency  in  use  of  finance.  Officials  estimate  that  these  challenges account  for  40%  –  45  %  of  allocated  funds.  Recurrent  capital  expenditure  imbalances  in  budgetary allocations  aggravate  the  challenges  and  stifle  the  provision  of  education  infrastructure. The  non-inclusion of performance conditions in the criteria for federal matching grants to state governments on basic education may lead to lack of incentives for performance and inefficiency. 

Schools are under even greater pressure to do more with less and maintain a clear process to decide how to allocate finance in areas that are needed the most and are the most effective. An important concern then, is understanding the connection between resource utilization, data-directed decision-making, and monitoring the use of resource utilization in schools to improve student learning outcome.

The prime purpose of this study was to investigate how financing and school management impacts on learning outcome in primary public schools in Benue State. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following research objectives:

  1. Conceptualize the three-model variables of resource allocation, government funding, and school financial management as they impact on students learning outcome;
  2. Determine the extent to which resource allocation produce effects, feelings, thoughts, and motivations for learners in relation to their learning outcome;
  3. Establish the link between government funding and level of learning outcome among students
  4. Find out if school financial management, with special focus on budgeting have direct consequences on learning outcome of students

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on impact of school financial management on learning outcome of students in Lagos State. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of some selected secondary schools in Lagos East Senatorial District covering Ikorodu, Somolu, Kosofe, Epe and Ibeju-Lekki. The total population of this study is 2,728. The table below further describes the population. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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INTERGROUP RELATIONS IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF YORUBA-HAUSA IN SAGAMU UP TO 2005

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Research Proposal

RNigeria is a large multi-ethnic country where intra-ethnic cleavages remain a critical problem and ethnic violence has erupted periodically. Among the prominent conflicts in Nigeria are: Ife-Modakeke Crisis in Osun State; Yoruba-Hausa Clashes in Sagamu, Ogun State; Eleme-Okrika Conflict in Rivers State; Zango-Kataf in Kaduna State; Tiv-Jukun in  Wukari, Taraba State; Ogoni-Adoni in Rivers State; Chamba-Kuteb in Taraba State;  Itsekiri-Ijaw/Urhobo in Delta State; Aguleri-Umuleri in Anambra State; Ijaw-Ilaje  conflict in Ondo State; Basa-Egbura in Nassarawa State; Hausa/Fulani-Sawaya in Bauchi, among others. These conflicts have provided a pattern that makes scholars to attribute their causes to greed, power and wealth distribution.

The impacts of these conflicts have led to loss of lives, displacement of people, destruction of properties, etc. Thus, the greatest challenge facing the process of conflict resolution in Nigeria is the issue of maintaining balance among the conflicting parties by the third party (i.e the Nigerian Government). This balance, however, can only be met if the roots of the conflict(s) are traced and treated fairly. Going by this analysis, the lessons from the key conflicts in Southwest Nigeria makes a good study because of its strategic importance in Nigerian history; and again, its prospect for conflict resolution in Nigeria.

The people of Sagamu were said to have migrated from Iremo quarters in Ile-Ife to a place called Yemule, a location between Ijebu-Ode and Agoro on Ijebu-Ode Sagamu road. After a brief spell they moved again to Okun-Owa from where they later settled at Orile-Offin which is about 5 kilometres from Sagamu and it is no encircled by the rubber plantation which extends from Sagamu to Ikenne.

The impact of the Hausa community in Sagamu town had not been well documented especially in contemporary periods, rather than pre-colonial periods. The Hausa had settled in Sagamu before Nigeria gained independence in 1960 and had developed great trade partners, especially in kolanut trade.

However, the Hausa community had grown rapidly in the area of textiles, cattle and recently in petroleum Distribution to the extent that they had develop their community and the town at large. This is the reason why the researcher, needs to examine Hausa impact in the area of social and economy Development to the  year 2005 and look on migration and settlement of the Hausa from 1960-2005.

The objectives of this study are to:

  1. Examine the geographical environment and peopling of Sagamu town;
  2. Discuss the formation of Hausa community in Sabo area of Sagamu
  3. Analyse the socio-economic relationship and competitions between the Yoruba and Hausa groups in Sagamu
  4. Discuss the outbreak of conflicts and means of resolutions between Yoruba and Hausa groups in Sagamu

This study will equip our knowledge of origin of Sagamu as well as how the Hausa came to settle in Sagamu. It will also enhance our understanding of causes and consequences of conflict between the traditional inhabitants of Sagamu and the Hausa community of the town. In addition it will be a source of reference to other researchers.

This study adopts the historical research methodology. In regard to this method, the research depends largely on primary sources especially oral tradition, letters, archival documents. Over ten people have been contacted in the various communities under study for oral interview. Different modes of collecting data (mostly oral interview) were adopted. Tape recorder was employed to collect data. The language used in collecting data was Yoruba and Hausa and later transcribed to English language and then cross-examined to check their level of objectivity and relevance.       Secondary sources were also sourced to enrich the research work. Published works on the history of the Sagamu people and also the history of Hausa community in Sagamu were consulted to provide a scholarly guideline for the work.

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THE EFFECTS OF POOR TEACHER-STUDENT RELATIONSHIP ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BIOLOGY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA



Chapter One: Introduction

Nigeria’s vision 20:2020 indicates that science and in particular biological knowledge holds the key to attainment of national goals, which include food and security, eradication of child mortality, and reduction of the spread of HIV/AIDS among others. However, the dwindling poor academic performance of students in Biology makes the realization of such goals unrealistic. The causes of their poor performance are linked to many factors including home environment, peer pressure, culture, socio-economic status, etc. Each of these factors has a magnitude and direction. The summation of these factors drives the student in a particular direction. The student will move in the direction of these summed factors although, many instances this direction is not supportive of reaching the educational objectives the student needs to meet. If the teacher is aware of these factors upon the student, knows the educational objectives for the student, the teacher can apply influential/motivational forces to assist the student in obtaining the educational goals/objectives for the student’s success. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to examine how the management of these factors affects teacher-student relationship in schools. This study focuses on the following objectives.

1)  To examine the degree to which the relationship between the teacher and student impact student academic achievement

2)  To discuss the degree to which the student’s perception of respect and care impact student academic achievement

3)  To analyse the extent which the teacher’s cultural connectedness to students impact the teacher-student relationship

4)  To investigate the degree to which teacher’s expectation impact academic achievement

Educators across the nation are entrenched in determining ways to close the achievement gap. If the findings of this study show that a positive relationship accelerates student academic achievement, additional access to pathways of success will be available for all members of the educational community. Current areas of focus on instructional delivery and strategies that engage learners are often devoid of an emphasis on the relationships between students and teachers. If the findings of this study validate the importance of student-teacher relationships, a paradigm-shift could be afforded to educators in the on-going journey to close the achievement gap.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews literature on the effects of poor teacher – student relationship on academic performance of biology students in Nigeria. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter deals with the methodology and the research instrument to be used in getting data for the study. This study uses descriptive survey type. The target population consist of some selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government area of Lagos State as case study. Relevant statistical tool in the SPSS will be used for data analysis.

Chapter Four: Data Analysis

In this chapter, the researcher will analyse the data collected for the research work and interpret it according to the research hypotheses formulated in chapter one.

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and conclusions are to be drawn from the research literature, research findings and data analysis. Recommendations will be made in the final chapter.

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